How to format your references using the American Review of Canadian Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Review of Canadian Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, Steven A. 2011. “Comment on ‘A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6034): 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farzadfard, Fahim, and Timothy K. Lu. 2014. “Synthetic Biology. Genomically Encoded Analog Memory with Precise in Vivo DNA Writing in Living Cell Populations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6211): 1256272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishikawa, Hiroki, Zhe Ma, and Glen N. Barber. 2009. “STING Regulates Intracellular DNA-Mediated, Type I Interferon-Dependent Innate Immunity.” Nature 461 (7265): 788–792.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Valenza, Gaetano, Luca Citi, Antonio Lanatá, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, and Riccardo Barbieri. 2014. “Revealing Real-Time Emotional Responses: A Personalized Assessment Based on Heartbeat Dynamics.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakker, Jokie, and Ronald J. Clarke. 2011. Wine Flavour Chemistry. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Anderson, Robert E., Matthew M. LaVail, and Joe G. Hollyfield, eds. 2008. Recent Advances in Retinal Degeneration. Vol. 613. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevallos, Margarita Dávila. 2015. “Participation of Ecuadorian Women in the Maritime Oil Transportation Sector.” In Maritime Women: Global Leadership, edited by Momoko Kitada, Erin Williams, and Lisa Loloma Froholdt, 55–65. WMU Studies in Maritime Affairs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Review of Canadian Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Testing Life-Hacks With ‘Citizen Science’: Does Stainless Steel Really Get Rid Of Garlic Smells?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies - Enclosure C. FPCD-76-12C. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crockett, William. 2017. “Student Transitions Into the Full-Time Virtual High School Setting.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, John. 2016. “Standing Firm, N.H.L. Rejects C.T.E.’s Links to Concussions.” New York Times, July 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Benner 2011; Farzadfard and Lu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farzadfard and Lu 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ishikawa, Ma, and Barber 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Valenza et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Review of Canadian Studies
AbbreviationAm. Rev. Can. Stud.
ISSN (print)0272-2011
ISSN (online)1943-9954
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles