How to format your references using the Surfaces and Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surfaces and Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Schilling, Spain unveils its eye on the sky, Nature. 460 (2009) 674.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Shepherd, D. Wingham, Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, Science. 315 (2007) 1529–1532.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.M. Truckses, L.S. Garrenton, J. Thorner, Jekyll and Hyde in the microbial world, Science. 306 (2004) 1509–1511.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Genoux, U. Haditsch, M. Knobloch, A. Michalon, D. Storm, I.M. Mansuy, Protein phosphatase 1 is a molecular constraint on learning and memory, Nature. 418 (2002) 970–975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Bromfield, Doing Therapy with Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
I. Abu-Arafeh, A. Özge, eds., Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Case-Based Approach, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Shi, Y. Kurata, Modeling Ontological Concepts of Locations with a Heterogeneous Cardinal Direction Model, in: Y. Bi, M.-A. Williams (Eds.), Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 4th International Conference, KSEM 2010, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 4–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surfaces and Interfaces.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Astronomers Believe They’re Witnessing The Birth Of A New Planet, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.D. Sarantopoulos, The relationship between values and leadership styles of nonprofit leaders, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, Arts, Briefly; Opera Dispute at Bolshoi, New York Times. (2005) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurfaces and Interfaces
AbbreviationSurf. Interfaces
ISSN (print)2468-0230
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles