How to format your references using the Surfaces and Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surfaces and Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.-L. Barabási, Sociology. Network theory--the emergence of the creative enterprise, Science. 308 (2005) 639–641.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Bermingham, C. Dick, Ecology and evolution. The Inga--newcomer or museum antiquity?, Science. 293 (2001) 2214–2216.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Baluska, D. Volkmann, P.W. Barlow, Cell bodies in a cage, Nature. 428 (2004) 371.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Oishi, M. Cebrian, A. Abeliuk, N. Masuda, Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.H. Fullman, Increasing Alpha with Options, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
V. Lakshminarayanan, I. Bhattacharya, eds., Advances in Optical Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the First International Conference, IEM OPTRONIX 2014, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
B.G. Laviola, A.A. Alves, R.B. Rocha, M.A. Drumond, The Importance of Jatropha for Brazil, in: N. Carels, M. Sujatha, B. Bahadur (Eds.), Jatropha, Challenges for a New Energy Crop: Volume 1: Farming, Economics and Biofuel, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surfaces and Interfaces.

Blog post
D. Andrew, A Day In The Life Of Pi, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Better Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census Is Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Ponder, Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Wells, My Life in Pictures, New York Times. (2005) 656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurfaces and Interfaces
AbbreviationSurf. Interfaces
ISSN (print)2468-0230
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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