How to format your references using the Surfaces and Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surfaces and Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Bourzac, Neuroscience: Rewiring the brain, Nature. 522 (2015) S50-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Giuseppone, J.-F. Lutz, Materials chemistry: catalytic accordions, Nature. 473 (2011) 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Arnarez, S.J. Marrink, X. Periole, Identification of cardiolipin binding sites on cytochrome c oxidase at the entrance of proton channels, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1263.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Wang, K. Cheng, X. Wei, H. Qin, R. Chen, J. Liu, H. Zou, A six-plex proteome quantification strategy reveals the dynamics of protein turnover, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1827.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Fuller, RapidIO®: The Embedded System Interconnect, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
M. Epstein, Material Inhomogeneities and their Evolution: A Geometric Approach, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Clarke, S. Drossopoulou, J. Noble, T. Wrigstad, Aliasing, Confinement, and Ownership in Object-Oriented Programming, in: M. Cebulla (Ed.), Object-Oriented Technology. ECOOP 2007 Workshop Reader: ECOOP 2007 Workshops, Berlin, Germany, July 30-31, 2007, Final Reports, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surfaces and Interfaces.

Blog post
D. Andrew, It’s All In The Rotation: Exploring Planets Orbiting Distant Stars, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Program Consolidation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.E. Gonzalez, Ideal leadership practices in Head Start: Understanding leadership from the perspectives of directors and teachers, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, Lucky Loser in Qualifying Becomes Tired Winner of the Bronx Classic, New York Times. (2000) D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurfaces and Interfaces
AbbreviationSurf. Interfaces
ISSN (print)2468-0230
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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