How to format your references using the Surfaces and Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surfaces and Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Morbidelli, Planetary science: How Neptune pushed the boundaries of our Solar System, Science. 306 (2004) 1302–1304.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.Y. Jung, G. Stephanopoulos, A functional protein chip for pathway optimization and in vitro metabolic engineering, Science. 304 (2004) 428–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Lu, M.A. Searles, A. Klug, Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition, Nature. 426 (2003) 96–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Azzouz, G.S. Ralph, E. Storkebaum, L.E. Walmsley, K.A. Mitrophanous, S.M. Kingsman, P. Carmeliet, N.D. Mazarakis, VEGF delivery with retrogradely transported lentivector prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model, Nature. 429 (2004) 413–417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Sadati, G.A. Dumont, K.A. Hamed, W.A. Gruver, Hybrid Control and Motion Planning of Dynamical Legged Locomotion, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
M. Yang, Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society, Springer, London, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S.K. Mohanty, Environmentally Sensitive Goods in India’s Trade: Emerging Challenges and Prospects, in: K. Das (Ed.), Globalization and Standards: Issues and Challenges in Indian Business, Springer India, New Delhi, 2014: pp. 61–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surfaces and Interfaces.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Learning To Drink Is Hard Work- Who’d Have Trunk It?, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Medical Education: Curriculum and Financing Strategies Need to Encourage Primary Care Training, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.L. Kinney, Isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of Enterococccus spp. and Salmonella spp. from conventional poultry farms transitioning to organic farming practices, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Behind the Scenes; Though Advisers Differ, Clinton’s in Tune With All, New York Times. (1992) 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurfaces and Interfaces
AbbreviationSurf. Interfaces
ISSN (print)2468-0230
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films

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