How to format your references using the BMC Clinical Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Clinical Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kerr RA. OIL OUTLOOK:USGS Optimistic on World Oil Prospects. Science. 2000;289:237.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Paterson I, Anderson EA. Chemistry. The renaissance of natural products as drug candidates. Science. 2005;310:451–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Brunkard JO, Runkel AM, Zambryski PC. Evolution. Comment on “A promiscuous intermediate underlies the evolution of LEAFY DNA binding specificity.” Science. 2015;347:621.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Maharjan R, Seeto S, Notley-McRobb L, Ferenci T. Clonal adaptive radiation in a constant environment. Science. 2006;313:514–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kowalick TM. Fatal Exit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Somasundaram I, editor. Stem Cell Therapy for Organ Failure. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yang Y, Ding X, Deng RH, Bao F. An Efficient PIR Construction Using Trusted Hardware. In: Wu T-C, Lei C-L, Rijmen V, Lee D-T, editors. Information Security: 11th International Conference, ISC 2008, Taipei, Taiwan, September 15-18, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 64–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Clinical Pharmacology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Why Does Marijuana Give You The Munchies? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/marijuana-triggers-munchies-flipping-hunger-switch-brain/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in General Automated Data Processing Controls at the National Finance Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roache RS. Missouri Public School Teachers’ Perception of Tenure. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: Europe Mission Chief Departs. New York Times. 2002;:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Clinical Pharmacology
ISSN (print)1472-6904
Scope

Other styles