How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soderblom, D., 2015. Astrophysics: Stellar clocks. Nature 517, 557–558.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nahrendorf, M., Swirski, F.K., 2015. Immunology. Neutrophil-macrophage communication in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 349, 237–238.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clark, T.A., Sugnet, C.W., Ares, M., Jr, 2002. Genomewide analysis of mRNA processing in yeast using splicing-specific microarrays. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 907–910.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hearn, E.M., Patel, D.R., Lepore, B.W., Indic, M., van den Berg, B., 2009. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall. Nature 458, 367–370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann, R., Krüger, U., 2013. Stahlbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Weissenbacher, E.R., 2014. Immunology of the Female Genital Tract. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yanling, H., Hong, W., Dehua, L., 2010. Space-Time Variation Operator Set in Possibility Construction Space. In: Cai, Z., Tong, H., Kang, Z., Liu, Y. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems: 5th International Symposium, ISICA 2010, Wuhan, China, October 22-24, 2010. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Geology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. The Oceans Could Soon Not Have Enough Oxygen To Support Marine Life [WWW Document], IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Natural Gas Pipelines: Greater Use of Instrumented Inspection Technology Can Improve Safety. No. RCED-92-237. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, A.E., 2010. Gas hydrate-filled fracture reservoirs on continental margins. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Third-Party Candidate; Perot’s Vision: Consensus by Computer., New York Times 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soderblom, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Nahrendorf and Swirski, 2015; Soderblom, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nahrendorf and Swirski, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hearn et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Geology
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Geol.
ISSN (print)0191-8141

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