How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, S.E., 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The meaning of the Human Genome Project for neuropsychiatric disorders. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, 1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D., 2014. Ecology. Meet the new boss, same as the old boss. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343, 974–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström, G., Nettles, M., Tsai, V.C., 2006. Seasonality and increasing frequency of Greenland glacial earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, 1756–1758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang, L.R., Cox, E.C., Austin, R.H., Sturm, J.C., 2004. Continuous particle separation through deterministic lateral displacement. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304, 987–990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezg, N., Hajej, Z., Boschian-Campaner, V., 2016. Production and Maintenance Optimization Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zerr, B., Jaulin, L., Creuze, V., Debese, N., Quidu, I., Clement, B., Billon-Coat, A. (Eds.), 2016. Quantitative Monitoring of the Underwater Environment: Results of the International Marine Science and Technology Event MOQESM´14 in Brest, France, Ocean Engineering & Oceanography. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Carr, L.P., Nanni, A.J., 2009. Delivering Results Context. In: Nanni, A.J., Jr. (Ed.), Delivering Results: Managing What Matters. Springer US, New York, NY, 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. GM Crops: An Uneasy Truce Hangs Over Europe [WWW Document], IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. FCC: Redesignating and Reallocating Frequency Bands and Establishing Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and Fixed Satellite Services. No. OGC-96-44. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahmud, S., 2017. Comparing the Performance of Bottom-Moored and Unmanned Surface Vehicle Towed Passive Acoustic Monitoring Platforms for Marine Mammal Detections. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. Hillary Clinton Health Panel Hears the People, Invitation Only., New York Times 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyman, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hyman, 2011; Kaspari and Weiser, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaspari and Weiser, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Geology
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Geol.
ISSN (print)0191-8141

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