How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel, J., 2005. Chemistry. Inventing the nanomolecular wheel. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310, 63–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
KelIy, C.K., Bowler, M.G., 2002. Coexistence and relative abundance in forest trees. Nature 417, 437–440.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halley, J.M., Iwasa, Y., Vokou, D., 2013. Comment on “Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339, 271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carreiras, M., Lopez, J., Rivero, F., Corina, D., 2005. Linguistic perception: neural processing of a whistled language. Nature 433, 31–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G.A., 2015. Pesticides. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lacruz, C.R., 2014. Central Nervous System Intraoperative Cytopathology, Essentials in Cytopathology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Jennings, F.J., Galarza, R., Warner, B.R., 2016. Political Communication and Affective Polarization in the 2014 Midterm Elections for the US Senate: The Cases of Iowa, North Carolina, and Georgia. In: Hendricks, J.A., Schill, D. (Eds.), Communication and Midterm Elections: Media, Message, and Mobilization, Discussion Paper. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 83–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Geology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. These US Military Drones Can Swarm Together Using A Hive Mind [WWW Document], IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Financial Management Systems: HUD Needs to Address Management and Governance Weaknesses That Jeopardize Its Modernization Efforts. No. GAO-16-656. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mande, M., 2017. Sisyphus’s Fault: How the Shifting Terrain of a Changing Institution Makes Curriculum Reform an “Impossible Task.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. False Claims and Flawed Reports., New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ridley, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (John, 2009; Adams, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (KelIy and Bowler, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Leduc et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Geology
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Geol.
ISSN (print)0191-8141

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