How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joppa, L.N., 2009. Journal club. An ecologist calls for a citizen-science “Wiki.” Nature 459, 619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, S., Douglas, T., 2010. Biochemistry. Some enzymes just need a space of their own. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Esvelt, K.M., Carlson, J.C., Liu, D.R., 2011. A system for the continuous directed evolution of biomolecules. Nature 472, 499–503.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sefton, L., Timmer, J.R., Zhang, Y., Béranger, F., Cline, T.W., 2000. An extracellular activator of the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway is a sex-determination signal element. Nature 405, 970–973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poltorak, A.I., Lerner, P.J., 2011. Essentials of Intellectual Property. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ramasubramanian, K., 2011. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakaṇṭha Somayājī, 1st ed, Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Ray, S., Özdemir, V., 2016. Angel Philanthropy and Crowdfunding to Accelerate Cancer Research in Developing World. In: Srivastava, S. (Ed.), Biomarker Discovery in the Developing World: Dissecting the Pipeline for Meeting the Challenges. Springer India, New Delhi, 65–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Geology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Critically Endangered “Fairy Possum” Is Stuck In A Catch-22 Situation [WWW Document], IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal. No. NSIAD-99-18. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jo, S.M., 2009. A study of Korean students’ creativity in science using structural equation modeling. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E., 2017. Vast Exercise Demonstrated Russia’s Growing Military Prowess., New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joppa, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Joppa, 2009; Kang and Douglas, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Douglas, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sefton et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Geology
AbbreviationJ. Struct. Geol.
ISSN (print)0191-8141

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