How to format your references using the Forensic Science International: Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International: Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.D. Fryzuk, Chemistry. More can be better in N2 activation, Science. 340 (2013) 1530–1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Forster, C. Renfrew, Evolution. Mother tongue and Y chromosomes, Science. 333 (2011) 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
X. Li, Y. Yang, J.D. Ashwell, TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2, Nature. 416 (2002) 345–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Garcia-Barros, F. Paris, C. Cordon-Cardo, D. Lyden, S. Rafii, A. Haimovitz-Friedman, Z. Fuks, R. Kolesnick, Tumor response to radiotherapy regulated by endothelial cell apoptosis, Science. 300 (2003) 1155–1159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.A. Windom Sr., H. Gaidhani, A. Fontana, Virtualizing, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010.
An edited book
A. Sillitti, O. Hazzan, E. Bache, X. Albaladejo, eds., Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 12th International Conference, XP 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 10-13, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
G.C. Papaioannou, K.J. McHugh, Imaging Principles in Pediatric Oncology, in: A.D. Gouliamos, J. Andreou, P. Kosmidis (Eds.), Imaging in Clinical Oncology, Springer, Milano, 2014: pp. 65–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International: Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Should Dying Patients Have The Right To Access Experimental Treatments?, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Advance Sheets: Volume 74, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.K. Butler, Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. MacFARQUHAR, Chechen Links Nemtsov Killing to Charlie Hebdo Cartoons, New York Times. (2015) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International: Synergy
ISSN (print)2589-871X

Other styles