How to format your references using the Forensic Science International: Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International: Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Hampshire, Poorly conducted (or reported) animal tests put humans at risk, Nature. 407 (2000) 671.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Jinnah, S. Jungcurt, Global biological resources. Could access requirements stifle your research?, Science. 323 (2009) 464–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Obata, T. Kono, I. Hatada, Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro, Nature. 418 (2002) 497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.N. Schofield, J. Eppig, E. Huala, M.H. de Angelis, M. Harvey, D. Davidson, T. Weaver, S. Brown, D. Smedley, N. Rosenthal, K. Schughart, V. Aidinis, G. Tocchini-Valentini, J.M. Hancock, Research funding. Sustaining the data and bioresource commons, Science. 330 (2010) 592–593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Knowles, 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
J.S. Hesthaven, Certified Reduced Basis Methods for Parametrized Partial Differential Equations, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Maxwell, D. Pigram, Gaudi’s Puffy Jacket: A Method for the Implementation of Fabric Slump Casting in the Construction of Thin-Wall Funicular Vault Structures, in: P. Block, J. Knippers, N.J. Mitra, W. Wang (Eds.), Advances in Architectural Geometry 2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International: Synergy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, A Cargo Ship has Finally Docked with the ISS, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Progress Made to Set Up Program Using Private-Sector Airport Screeners, but More Work Remains, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.M. Crowley, Dynamics of Creativity: A Study of Early Drug Discovery Scientists’ Experience of Creativity, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Marx, Elizabeth Greig and Jason Extein, New York Times. (2010) ST15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International: Synergy
ISSN (print)2589-871X

Other styles