How to format your references using the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Buchen L. Snapshot: The guts of a dying star. Nature. 2009;460:671.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hommelhoff P, Higuchi T. Strong-field physics: Harmonic radiation from crystals. Nature. 2015;523:541–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Di Matteo T, Springel V, Hernquist L. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies. Nature. 2005;433:604–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Antonini C, Lee JB, Maitra T, Irvine S, Derome D, Tiwari MK, et al. Unraveling wetting transition through surface textures with X-rays: liquid meniscus penetration phenomena. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fencott C, Lockyer M, Clay J, Massey P. Game Invaders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Vanderbeeken R, Le Roy F, Stalpaert C, Aerts D, editors. Drunk on Capitalism. An Interdisciplinary Reflection on Market Economy, Art and Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Caria AA, Silva AM, Gomes DRR, Oliveira LCAM. Accounting as an Information System. In: Machado C, Davim JP, editors. MBA: Theory and Application of Business and Management Principles. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 125–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Clinical Dermatology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. The Sex Lives Of Ghost Sharks Are Weirder Than You Think. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: FHWA’s Model for Estimating Highway Needs Has Been Modified for State-Level Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Feb. Report No.: GAO-01-299.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Witowski LL. The relationship between instructional delivery methods and student learning preferences: What contributes to student satisfaction in an online learning environment? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Ruling Seen as Giving an Edge to Challengers of Patents. New York Times. 2007 Jan 10;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Clinical Dermatology
AbbreviationAm. J. Clin. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)1175-0561
ISSN (online)1179-1888
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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