How to format your references using the Journal of Differential Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Differential Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Kwok, The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars, Nature. 430 (2004) 985–991.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Hadders, S.M.A. Lens, Cell biology. Mind the midzone, Science. 345 (2014) 265–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Ng, W. Cai, K. Walsh, The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6034.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Chen, E.M. Vogan, H. Gong, J.J. Skehel, D.C. Wiley, S.C. Harrison, Structure of an unliganded simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 core, Nature. 433 (2005) 834–841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Duggan, Enterprise Software Architecture and Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
W. Leal Filho, R. Kotter, eds., E-Mobility in Europe: Trends and Good Practice, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Zeng, L. Gu, S. Guo, A General Communication Cost Optimization Framework for Big Data Stream Processing in Geo-Distributed Data Centers, in: L. Gu, S. Guo (Eds.), Cloud Networking for Big Data, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Differential Equations.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why Men Are Not Biologically Useless After All …, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Rulemaking: Incomplete Implementation Impaired FAA’s Reform Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Bakhoda, Synthesis and Electrochemistry of Ru(II) Vinylidenes, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Maker Agrees to Modify a Helmet That Was Decertified, New York Times. (2014) D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Differential Equations
AbbreviationJ. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (print)0022-0396

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