How to format your references using the Journal of Differential Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Differential Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Livio, Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved, Nature. 479 (2011) 171–173.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Devanna, S.C. Vernes, A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3994.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Imaizumi, S.A. Kay, J.I. Schroeder, Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism, Science. 318 (2007) 1730–1731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.-L. Cha, B.P. Zhou, W. Xia, Y. Wu, C.-C. Yang, C.-T. Chen, B. Ping, A.P. Otte, M.-C. Hung, Akt-mediated phosphorylation of EZH2 suppresses methylation of lysine 27 in histone H3, Science. 310 (2005) 306–310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.B. Rowe, Modern Grinding Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
P. McIlveen, D.E. Schultheiss, eds., Social Constructionism in Vocational Psychology and Career Development, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Horváth, I.J. Rudas, Intelligent Content for Product Definition in RFLP Structure, in: H. Fujita, A. Selamat (Eds.), Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Differential Equations.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Space-Grown Salad To Be Eaten On ISS For The First Time, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Staffing: New Pay Act Offers Options to Bolster Maintenance Work Force, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.J. Long, Comparison of health-promoting lifestyles in adult patients with and without primary care provider continuity, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, N.F.L.-Approved Therapist For Fans Draws Scrutiny, New York Times. (2012) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Differential Equations
AbbreviationJ. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (print)0022-0396

Other styles