How to format your references using the Journal of Differential Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Differential Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.W. Lea, Paleoclimate. Ice ages, the California Current, and Devils Hole, Science. 293 (2001) 59–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Schwartz, C.S. Chen, Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality, Science. 339 (2013) 402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.G. Begley, A.M. Buchan, U. Dirnagl, Robust research: Institutions must do their part for reproducibility, Nature. 525 (2015) 25–27.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.N. Ko, S.B. Park, S.H. Choi, Y.C. Kang, One-pot synthesis of manganese oxide-carbon composite microspheres with three dimensional channels for Li-ion batteries, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5751.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Wallgren, B. Wallgren, Register-Based Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
K.T. Leicht, J.C. Jenkins, eds., Handbook of Politics: State and Society in Global Perspective, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Storch, N.K. Downes, M. Schmidt, T.C.V. Nguyen, L.C. Dinh, B. Thanh, Adaptation: Integrative Planning Framework for Adapted Land-Use Planning, in: A. Katzschner, M. Waibel, D. Schwede, L. Katzschner, M. Schmidt, H. Storch (Eds.), Sustainable Ho Chi Minh City: Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 51–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Differential Equations.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Global Warming To Expose More People To Zika-Spreading Mosquito Aedes Aegypti, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: The Small Business Technology Transfer Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Cardillo-Geller, Renegotiating relationships, patterns of grief and experiences of support: An examination of mothers’ relationships with their daughters following daughters’ loss of a husband in the September 11 th, 2001 World Trade Center attacks, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Fox News Is Fixing For a Fight At Night, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Differential Equations
AbbreviationJ. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (print)0022-0396

Other styles