How to format your references using the African Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Niedenthal PM. Embodying emotion. Science 2007;316:1002–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Dominguez-Villar M, Hafler DA. Immunology. An innate role for IL-17. Science 2011;332:47–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Jeong K-H, Kim J, Lee LP. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. Science 2006;312:557–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Fiquet G, Badro J, Guyot F, Requardt H, Krisch M. Sound velocities in iron to 110 gigapascals. Science 2001;291:468–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Dickenson J, Freeman F, Mills CL, Sivasubramaniam S, Thode C. Molecular Pharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Zhu R, Zhang Y, Liu B, Liu C, editors. Information Computing and Applications: First International Conference, ICICA 2010, Tangshan, China, October 15-18, 2010. Proceedings. vol. 6377. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Horsmanheimo S, Maskey N, Kokkoniemi-Tarkkanen H, Tuomimäki L, Savolainen P. Learning Based Proactive Handovers in Heterogeneous Networks. In: Pesch D, Timm-Giel A, Calvo RA, Wenning B-L, Pentikousis K, editors. Mobile Networks and Management: 5th International Conference, MONAMI 2013, Cork, Ireland, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Plague Victim Skeletons Reveal Secrets Of The Black Death. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/plague-victim-skeletons-reveal-secrets-black-death/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of USDA High-Impact Programs Improving, But More Action Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
David SZ. A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Belson K. Head Coach of Broncos Is Expected to Retire. New York Times 2017:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAfr. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-419X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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