How to format your references using the African Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burrows J. Microbiology: Malaria runs rings round artemisinin. Nature 2015;520:628–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zarin DA, Tse T. Medicine. Moving toward transparency of clinical trials. Science 2008;319:1340–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hong Y, Wang Z, Jin X. Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation. Sci Rep 2013;3:3439.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sinclair RC, Mark MM, Moore SE, Lavis CA, Soldat AS. An electoral butterfly effect. Nature 2000;408:665–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weber P, Simon C. Benefits of Bayesian Network Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Gavalec M. Decision Making and Optimization: Special Matrices and Their Applications in Economics and Management. vol. 677. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Eikelenboom P, van Gool WA, Rozemuller AJM, Scheper W, Veerhuis R, Hoozemans JJM. The Involvement of Aβ in the Neuroinflammatory Response. In: Barrow CJ, Small DH, editors. Abeta Peptide and Alzheimer’s Disease: Celebrating a Century of Research, London: Springer; 2007, p. 52–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. MDMA Should Be Studied Not Demonized, Say Researchers. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez NM. The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dudziak ML. Obama’s Nixonian Precedent. New York Times 2013:A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAfr. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-419X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles