How to format your references using the African Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Abbott A. Genomics: sorry, dogs - man’s got a new best friend. Nature 2002;420:729.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Hench LL, Polak JM. Third-generation biomedical materials. Science 2002;295:1014–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Wolfe CJ, Okubo PG, Shearer PM. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Science 2003;300:478–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lin JJ, Zhou J, Shiu W, Liu K. State-specific correlation of coincident product pairs in the F + CD4 reaction. Science 2003;300:966–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Johansen GA, Jackson P. Radioisotope Gauges for Industrial Process Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Freund Y, Györfi L, Turán G, Zeugmann T, editors. Algorithmic Learning Theory: 19th International Conference, ALT 2008, Budapest, Hungary, October 13-16, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5254. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Przelaskowski A. Computer-Aided Diagnosis: From Image Understanding to Integrated Assistance. In: Pietka E, Kawa J, editors. Information Technologies in Biomedicine, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 44–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Insect Exoskeleton Shedding Is Like Having Your Lungs Torn Out. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/insect-exoskeleton-shedding-having-your-lungs-torn-out/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Airport Financing: Funding Sources for Airport Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Grether S. All You Need is Love? An Examination of Interracial Divorce. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Vecsey G. Memories Translate Well for Lendl. New York Times 2010:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAfr. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-419X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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