How to format your references using the African Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rakic P. Neuroscience. Genetic control of cortical convolutions. Science 2004;303:1983–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Monk J, Palsson BO. Genetics. Predicting microbial growth. Science 2014;344:1448–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero JM, Bullard JE, Hodgkins R. High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science 2012;335:1078–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim K, Kim M-J, Kim S-I, Jang J-H. Towards visible light hydrogen generation: quantum dot-sensitization via efficient light harvesting of hybrid-TiO2. Sci Rep 2013;3:3330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neupert R. French Animation History. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Moriai S, editor. Fast Software Encryption: 20th International Workshop, FSE 2013, Singapore, March 11-13, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. vol. 8424. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Li X, Wu R. Cross-Border Governance: The Merger of Guangzhou and Foshan. In: Altrock U, Schoon S, editors. Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 83–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Like A Fish Out Of Water: Fish May Have Emerged Onto Land More Than 30 Times. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standard, Model Year 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang EY. Late Twentieth-Century Piano Concert Etudes: A Style Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N. Putin Tightens His Grip on Russia’s Parliament With an Election Rout. New York Times 2016:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationAfr. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-419X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles