How to format your references using the Journal of Empirical Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Empirical Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fara, P., 2003. Perceptions of science. Face values: how portraits win friends and influence people. Science 299, 831–832.
A journal article with 2 authors
Festing, M.F., Fisher, E.M., 2000. Mighty mice. Nature 404, 815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mallatt, J., Chen, J., Holland, N.D., 2003. Comment on “A new species of yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution.” Science 300, 1372; author reply 1372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mazzali, P.A., Deng, J., Nomoto, K., Sauer, D.N., Pian, E., Tominaga, N., Tanaka, M., Maeda, K., Filippenko, A.V., 2006. A neutron-star-driven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj. Nature 442, 1018–1020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R.L., 2002. Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gettelman, A., 2016. Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models, Earth Systems Data and Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Neill, J., 2015. Image-Guided Interventional Diagnosis and Treatment, in: O’Neill, J. (Ed.), Essential Imaging in Rheumatology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 89–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Empirical Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Is Venus Still Erupting? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Telecommunications Privacy: GSA’s Planned FTS 2000 Telephone Record Controls Appear Reasonable (No. IMTEC-89-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robles, S., 2013. Transient over-voltages generated by solar photovoltaic inverters (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakabayashi, D., Corkery, M., 2017. Walmart And Google Partner, Eyes On Amazon. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fara, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fara, 2003; Festing and Fisher, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Festing and Fisher, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Mazzali et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Empirical Finance
AbbreviationJ. Empir. Finance
ISSN (print)0927-5398
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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