How to format your references using the Journal of Empirical Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Empirical Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brower, A.V.Z., 2004. Comment on “Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation” (II). Science 303, 173; author reply 173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Amack, J.D., Manning, M.L., 2012. Knowing the boundaries: extending the differential adhesion hypothesis in embryonic cell sorting. Science 338, 212–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berken, A., Thomas, C., Wittinghofer, A., 2005. A new family of RhoGEFs activates the Rop molecular switch in plants. Nature 436, 1176–1180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H.B., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., Ruoff, R.S., 2006. Graphene-based composite materials. Nature 442, 282–286.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R.G., 2004. Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nickerson, A.B., 2009. Identifying, Assessing, and Treating PTSD at School, Developmental Psychopathology at School. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Schore, A.N., Newton, R.P., 2013. Using Modern Attachment Theory to Guide Clinical Assessments of Early Attachment Relationships, in: Bettmann, J.E., Demetri Friedman, D. (Eds.), Attachment-Based Clinical Work with Children and Adolescents. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 61–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Empirical Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Scientists Develop Beer That Doesn’t Give You A Hangover [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Agencies Must Act Quickly to Address Risks That Jeopardize the Continuity of Weather and Climate Data (No. GAO-10-558). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garlapally, V., 2017. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Impact on Metamorphosis and Thyroid Development in African Clawed Frogs (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Whimsical Boyfriends. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brower, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Amack and Manning, 2012; Brower, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Amack and Manning, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Stankovich et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Empirical Finance
AbbreviationJ. Empir. Finance
ISSN (print)0927-5398
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles