How to format your references using the Journal of Empirical Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Empirical Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brantley, S.L., 2008. Geology. Understanding soil time. Science 321, 1454–1455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Halliday, A.N., Wood, B.J., 2009. Geophysics. How did Earth accrete? Science 325, 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padian, K., de Ricqlès, A.J., Horner, J.R., 2001. Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins. Nature 412, 405–408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DiToro, D., Winstead, C.J., Pham, D., Witte, S., Andargachew, R., Singer, J.R., Wilson, C.G., Zindl, C.L., Luther, R.J., Silberger, D.J., Weaver, B.T., Kolawole, E.M., Martinez, R.J., Turner, H., Hatton, R.D., Moon, J.J., Way, S.S., Evavold, B.D., Weaver, C.T., 2018. Differential IL-2 expression defines developmental fates of follicular versus nonfollicular helper T cells. Science 361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayor, R.H., 2017. Fiorello La Guardia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bhidayasiri, R., 2012. Movement Disorders: A Video Atlas: A Video Atlas, Current Clinical Neurology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Callender, C., 2013. Sturmian Canons, in: Yust, J., Wild, J., Burgoyne, J.A. (Eds.), Mathematics and Computation in Music: 4th International Conference, MCM 2013, Montreal, QC, Canada, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 64–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Empirical Finance.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Limb Regeneration Might Have Been The Original State For All Four-Legged Animals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program: Assessing Use of Proxy Data Would Enhance Ability to Know If States Are Meeting Their Goals (No. GAO-12-78). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, E.C., 2012. Smart Packaging: A Novel Technique For Localized Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Supreme Court to Revisit Federal Sentencing Issues. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brantley, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Brantley, 2008; Halliday and Wood, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Halliday and Wood, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (DiToro et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Empirical Finance
AbbreviationJ. Empir. Finance
ISSN (print)0927-5398
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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