How to format your references using the Journal of Empirical Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Empirical Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J., 2010. Chagas disease 101. Nature 465, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schier, A.F., Shen, M.M., 2000. Nodal signalling in vertebrate development. Nature 403, 385–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, F.S., Wilder, E.L., Zerhouni, E., 2014. Funding transdisciplinary research. NIH Roadmap/Common Fund at 10 years. Science 345, 274–276.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pianta, R.C., Belsky, J., Houts, R., Morrison, F., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network, 2007. Teaching. Opportunities to learn in America’s elementary classrooms. Science 315, 1795–1796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lynn, P.A., 2010. Electricity from Sunlight. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Issadore, D., Westervelt, R.M. (Eds.), 2013. Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jagode, H., YarKhan, A., Danalis, A., Dongarra, J., 2016. Power Management and Event Verification in PAPI, in: Knüpfer, A., Hilbrich, T., Niethammer, C., Gracia, J., Nagel, W.E., Resch, M.M. (Eds.), Tools for High Performance Computing 2015: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Parallel Tools for High Performance Computing, September 2015, Dresden, Germany. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Empirical Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Meet Phronima, The Barrel-Riding Parasite That Inspired The Movie Alien [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed (No. T-RCED-92-51). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, E.F., 2010. The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. Theater; The Terrain Where Generations Meet. New York Times AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton, 2010; Schier and Shen, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schier and Shen, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Pianta et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Empirical Finance
AbbreviationJ. Empir. Finance
ISSN (print)0927-5398
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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