How to format your references using the Journal of Empirical Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Empirical Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Northcutt, R.G., 2011. Paleontology. Evolving large and complex brains. Science 332, 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vallina, S.M., Simó, R., 2007. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean. Science 315, 506–508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershman, S.J., Horvitz, E.J., Tenenbaum, J.B., 2015. Computational rationality: A converging paradigm for intelligence in brains, minds, and machines. Science 349, 273–278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hemann, M.T., Bric, A., Teruya-Feldstein, J., Herbst, A., Nilsson, J.A., Cordon-Cardo, C., Cleveland, J.L., Tansey, W.P., Lowe, S.W., 2005. Evasion of the p53 tumour surveillance network by tumour-derived MYC mutants. Nature 436, 807–811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Angueira, P., Romo, J.A., 2012. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kolonin, M.G. (Ed.), 2013. Adipose Tissue and Cancer. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Márk, G.I., Vancsó, P., Biró, L.P., Kvashnin, D.G., Chernozatonskii, L.A., Chaves, A., Rakhimov, K.Y., Lambin, P., 2016. Wave Packet Dynamical Calculations for Carbon Nanostructures, in: Maffucci, A., Maksimenko, S.A. (Eds.), Fundamental and Applied Nano-Electromagnetics, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 89–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Empirical Finance.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Rare Beaked Whale Washes Up in Australia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: A Review of Emergency Response Information in Selected Train Documents (No. GAO-17-130). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reser, G., 2012. Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. Keeping It Real, the TV Version. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Northcutt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Northcutt, 2011; Vallina and Simó, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vallina and Simó, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hemann et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Empirical Finance
AbbreviationJ. Empir. Finance
ISSN (print)0927-5398
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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