How to format your references using the Advances in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. Finding your way. Nature. 2003;425(6954):209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shields GA, Kasting JF. Palaeoclimatology: evidence for hot early oceans? Nature. 2007;447(7140):E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomson KS, Sutton M, Thomas B. A larval Devonian lungfish. Nature. 2003;426(6968):833-834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Oh SH, Kauffmann Y, Scheu C, Kaplan WD, Rühle M. Ordered liquid aluminum at the interface with sapphire. Science. 2005;310(5748):661-663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian A. Energy and Global Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Ulivi P. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part 3: Wows and Woes, 1997-2003. (Harland DM, ed.). New York, NY: Praxis; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang M, Yu X. Market Barriers to Energy Efficiency. In: Yu X, ed. Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society. Green Energy and Technology. London: Springer; 2015:33-42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J. How The Giraffe Got Its Neck. IFLScience. Published October 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Department of the Interior’s Computerized Resources Information Bank. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paustian ME. Evaluating competition between the non-native slug Arion subfuscus and the native slug Philomycus carolinianus. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Codrea-Rado A. Pharrell Williams Kneels in Protest. New York Times. September 25, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationAdv. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2452-1094
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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