How to format your references using the Advances in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees M. A Longitude Prize for the twenty-first century. Nature. 2014;509(7501):401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang W, Aida T. Chemistry. Thermally responsive pulsating nanotubules. Science. 2012;337(6101):1462-1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rozitis B, MacLennan E, Emery JP. Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA. Nature. 2014;512(7513):174-176.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wicher D, Schäfer R, Bauernfeind R, et al. Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels. Nature. 2008;452(7190):1007-1011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molimard J. Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Garcia A, Choren R, Lucena C, Giorgini P, Holvoet T, Romanovsky A, eds. Software Engineering for Multi-Agent Systems IV: Research Issues and Practical Applications. Vol 3914. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu M, Hu Z. Concluding Remarks. In: Hu Z, ed. Nonlinear Analysis and Prediction of Time Series in Multiphase Reactors. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer International Publishing; 2014:43-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why You Shouldn’t Wrap Your Food In Aluminum Foil Before Cooking It. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evaluation of Unit Cost Reports Submitted Under Public Law 97-86, Section 917. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White AE. Female Ministers in Pastoral Leadership: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Publication Gives 2 Neighborhoods Unwanted Local Color. New York Times. April 19, 1998:149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationAdv. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2452-1094
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles