How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Auerbach, D.J. Surface Science. Hitting the Surface--Softly. Science 2001, 294, 2488–2489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tester, M.; Langridge, P. Breeding Technologies to Increase Crop Production in a Changing World. Science 2010, 327, 818–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, B.; Moore, J.S.; Beebe, D.J. Surface-Directed Liquid Flow inside Microchannels. Science 2001, 291, 1023–1026.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fryer, J.D.; Yu, P.; Kang, H.; Mandel-Brehm, C.; Carter, A.N.; Crespo-Barreto, J.; Gao, Y.; Flora, A.; Shaw, C.; Orr, H.T.; et al. Exercise and Genetic Rescue of SCA1 via the Transcriptional Repressor Capicua. Science 2011, 334, 690–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R. Flows and Chemical Reactions in Heterogeneous Mixtures; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119054221.
An edited book
KI 2010: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 33rd Annual German Conference on AI, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 21-24, 2010. Proceedings; Dillmann, R., Beyerer, J., Hanebeck, U.D., Schultz, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6359; ISBN 9783642161100.
A chapter in an edited book
Mutke, J.; Sommer, J.H.; Kreft, H.; Kier, G.; Barthlott, W. Vascular Plant Diversity in a Changing World: Global Centres and Biome-Specific Patterns. In Biodiversity Hotspots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas; Zachos, F.E., Habel, J.C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 83–96 ISBN 9783642209918.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Two-Thirds Of Cancer Mutations Down To Random Bad Luck, Claims Study (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intermodal Freight Transportation: Combined Rail-Truck Service Offers Public Benefits, but Challenges Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, J.L. Sitting in the Fire: An Exploration of Soul-Making in Prison. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B. C.E.O.s Long Avoided Politics. Trump Is Changing the Calculus. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles