How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ma, X. Palaeontology: Hallucigenia’s head. Nature 2015, 523, 38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palczewski, K.; Kiser, P.D. Biochemistry. As good as chocolate. Science 2013, 340, 562–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
LaDeau, S.L.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; Marra, P.P. West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 2007, 447, 710–713.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garcia-Barriocanal, J.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; Varela, M.; Sefrioui, Z.; Iborra, E.; Leon, C.; Pennycook, S.J.; Santamaria, J. Colossal ionic conductivity at interfaces of epitaxial ZrO2:Y2O3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Science 2008, 321, 676–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickenson, J.; Freeman, F.; Mills, C.L.; Sivasubramaniam, S.; Thode, C. Molecular Pharmacology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118451908.
An edited book
Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2011 International Workshops, London, UK, June 20-24, 2011. Proceedings; Salinesi, C., Pastor, O., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 83; ISBN 9783642220555.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, J.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Zhuang, J.Y. GIS-Based ER-USLE Model to Predict Soil Loss in Cultivated Land. In Theory and Practice of Soil Loss Control in Eastern China; DeAngelis, D.L., Zhuang, J.Y., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 65–80 ISBN 9781441996787.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Fang, J. Why Smaller Mammals Are More Susceptible To Cancer (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office VA Information Technology: Progress Made, but Continued Management Attention Is Key to Achieving Results; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elder, R. A Mixed-Method Investigation of the Missouri Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Pilot Program at a Private Midwestern University. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Thames, Schooled In the Yankee Way, Plays His Role. New York Times 2010, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles