How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirschmann, M. Earth Science: A Wet Mantle Conductor? Nature 2006, 439, E3; discussion E3-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zarur, A.J.; Ying, J.Y. Reverse Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanostructured Complex Oxides for Catalytic Combustion. Nature 2000, 403, 65–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nesvorný, D.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Bottke, W.F. The Breakup of a Main-Belt Asteroid 450 Thousand Years Ago. Science 2006, 312, 1490.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Distel, D.L.; Baco, A.R.; Chuang, E.; Morrill, W.; Cavanaugh, C.; Smith, C.R. Do Mussels Take Wooden Steps to Deep-Sea Vents? Nature 2000, 403, 725–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tannenbaum, L.V. Alternative Ecological Risk Assessment; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118743423.
An edited book
Smyth, M. Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry; Russell, J., Milanowski, T., Eds.; Green Energy and Technology; Springer: London, 2011; ISBN 9780857298430.
A chapter in an edited book
Harper Browne, C.; Shapiro, C.J. Building Young Children’s Social–Emotional Competence at Home and in Early Care and Education Settings. In Innovative Approaches to Supporting Families of Young Children; Shapiro, C.J., Harper Browne, C., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 87–105 ISBN 9783319390574.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Bizarre Chemical Reaction Looks Like A Portal To Hell (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Developing and Using Questionnaires; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, Y. Studies of E. Coli YidC and Other Factors for Membrane Protein Insertion. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bidgood, J. In Storm-Filled Season, Hurricane Nate Is Greeted With Relief. New York Times 2017, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles