How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neu, U. Is Recent Major Hurricane Activity Normal? Nature 2008, 451, E5; discussion E6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiao, L.; Liu, X. Structural Basis of Histone H3K27 Trimethylation by an Active Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Science 2015, 350, aac4383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berger, A.H.; Knudson, A.G.; Pandolfi, P.P. A Continuum Model for Tumour Suppression. Nature 2011, 476, 163–169.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, M.; McCormick, S.; Timmermans, M.; Sinha, N. The Expression Domain of PHANTASTICA Determines Leaflet Placement in Compound Leaves. Nature 2003, 424, 438–443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fayngold, M. Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005; ISBN 9783527602766.
An edited book
Systemic Sclerosis; Takehara, K., Fujimoto, M., Kuwana, M., Eds.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2016; ISBN 9784431557074.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, T.; Guan, S.-U.; Liu, F. Entropic Feature Discrimination Ability for Pattern Classification Based on Neural IAL. In Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2012: 9th International Symposium on Neural Networks, Shenyang, China, July 11-14, 2012. Proceedings, Part II; Wang, J., Yen, G.G., Polycarpou, M.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 30–37 ISBN 9783642313615.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Pope Endorses Theories Of Evolution And Big Bang Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office SEOG Funds: Information on the Distribution of SEOG Funds to Students; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, S. Keeping Families Together: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Baldwin Burns Strong. New York Times 2017, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles