How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloch, I. Quantum coherence and entanglement with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Nature 2008, 453, 1016–1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanahan, D.; Weinberg, R.A. Retrospective: Judah Folkman (1933-2008). Science 2008, 319, 1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saturno, W.A.; Stuart, D.; Beltrán, B. Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala. Science 2006, 311, 1281–1283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Winter, S.E.; Thiennimitr, P.; Winter, M.G.; Butler, B.P.; Huseby, D.L.; Crawford, R.W.; Russell, J.M.; Bevins, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Tsolis, R.M.; et al. Gut inflammation provides a respiratory electron acceptor for Salmonella. Nature 2010, 467, 426–429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberg, A. Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; ISBN 9783527413409.
An edited book
Dabbagh, N. Learning Technologies and Globalization: Pedagogical Frameworks and Applications; Benson, A.D., Denham, A., Joseph, R., Al-Freih, M., Zgheib, G., Fake, H., Guo, Z., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Educational Communications and Technology; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319229621.
A chapter in an edited book
Kadmiel, M.; Fritz-Six, K.L.; Caron, K.M. Understanding RAMPs Through Genetically Engineered Mouse Models. In RAMPs; Spielman, W.S., Parameswaran, N., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: New York, NY, 2012; pp. 49–60 ISBN 9781461423638.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Are You Getting Enough Vitamin B1 To Help Fend Off Alzheimer’s? (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Institute of Standards and Technology: Carryover Balances for the Advanced Technology Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe, M.I. Tobacco control: A qualitative assessment of the perceptions and practices of nurse practitioners. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling, M.K. Fine Dining Is Toast. New York Times 2017, M2106.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles