How to format your references using the Infrastructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrastructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baxter, S. From Caribbean to Clementine. Nature 2000, 403, 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefe, A.D.; Szostak, J.W. Functional Proteins from a Random-Sequence Library. Nature 2001, 410, 715–718.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, D.E.; Canning, D.; Fink, G. Urbanization and the Wealth of Nations. Science 2008, 319, 772–775.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Srinivas, V.; Lebrette, H.; Lundin, D.; Kutin, Y.; Sahlin, M.; Lerche, M.; Eirich, J.; Branca, R.M.M.; Cox, N.; Sjöberg, B.-M.; et al. Metal-Free Ribonucleotide Reduction Powered by a DOPA Radical in Mycoplasma Pathogens. Nature 2018, 563, 416–420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, S. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9780470933510.
An edited book
Nazri Bajuri, M. Computational Biomechanics of the Wrist Joint; Abdul Kadir, M.R., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642319051.
A chapter in an edited book
McLeish, T. Academic Freedom, Religion and the Natural Sciences. In Reexamining Academic Freedom in Religiously Affiliated Universities: Transcending Orthodoxies; Garcia, K., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 63–84 ISBN 9783319397863.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrastructures.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Nearby “Venus Twin” Exoplanet Might Still Have Oxygen Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Automatic Data Processing Policies, Procedures, and Practices at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1971;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Page, J.A. Contested Urban Space: Competing Discourses of Urban Development and Environmental Conservation in Playa Vista, California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Villarosa, L. The Wheezing That Could Signal Childhood Asthma. New York Times 2007, H2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrastructures
ISSN (online)2412-3811

Other styles