How to format your references using the Liverpool Law Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liverpool Law Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webster, R. G. 2001. Virology. A molecular whodunit. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 1773–1775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dixson, Danielle L., and Mark E. Hay. 2012. Corals chemically cue mutualistic fishes to remove competing seaweeds. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338: 804–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Liuh-Yow, Sophie Redon, and Joachim Lingner. 2012. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature 488: 540–544.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Toudic, Bertrand, Pilar Garcia, Christophe Odin, Philippe Rabiller, Claude Ecolivet, Eric Collet, Philippe Bourges, Garry J. McIntyre, Mark D. Hollingsworth, and Tomasz Breczewski. 2008. Hidden degrees of freedom in aperiodic materials. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 69–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shynk, John J. 2016. Mathematical Foundations for Linear Circuits and Systems in Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lowen, Robert, and Alain Verschoren, ed. 2008. Foundations of Generic Optimization: Volume 2: Applications of Fuzzy Control, Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks. Vol. 24. Mathematical Modelling: Theory and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dahlen, Carl, Jamie Larson, and G. Cliff Lamb. 2014. Impacts of Reproductive Technologies on Beef Production in the United States. In Current and Future Reproductive Technologies and World Food Production, ed. G. Cliff Lamb and Nicolas DiLorenzo, 97–114. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liverpool Law Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. 10 Things You Probably Don’t Know About Orgasms. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Triennial Assessment of the Tennessee Valley Authority--Fiscal Years 1977-1979. EMD-80-91. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swann, Elizabeth. 2014. Adult learning for healthy aging: An investigation of health literacy and technology use in older adults. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2007. A Short Menu of Longtime Favorites. New York Times, April 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Webster 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Webster 2001; Dixson and Hay 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dixson and Hay 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Toudic et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLiverpool Law Review
AbbreviationLiverp. Law Rev.
ISSN (print)0144-932X
ISSN (online)1572-8625

Other styles