How to format your references using the Liverpool Law Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liverpool Law Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, S. L. 2001. Newton in Japan. Nature 411: 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carson, M. J., and D. Lo. 2001. Immunology. The push-me pull-you of T cell activation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, Dawei, Linlin Zhao, and David E. Clapham. 2009. Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies Letm1 as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 144–147.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Levene, M. J., J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb. 2003. Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 682–686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather, Paul M., and Magaly Koch. 2011. Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Modrow, Susanne. 2013. Molecular Virology. Edited by Dietrich Falke, Uwe Truyen, and Hermann Schätzl. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Crowston, Kevin, and Ivan Shamshurin. 2016. Core-Periphery Communication and the Success of Free/Libre Open Source Software Projects. In Open Source Systems: Integrating Communities: 12th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference, OSS 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, May 30 - June 2, 2016, Proceedings, ed. Kevin Crowston, Imed Hammouda, Björn Lundell, Gregorio Robles, Jonas Gamalielsson, and Juho Lindman, 45–56. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liverpool Law Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Two More Mysterious Siberian Craters Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Smartphone Data: Information and Issues Regarding Surreptitious Tracking Apps That Can Facilitate Stalking. GAO-16-317. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stefanek, Andrew. 2019. Quantitative Purchasing Structure for Ferrous Scrap. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, Caryn. 2017. The Talented Mr. Gilmour. New York Times, September 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carson and Lo 2001; Montgomery 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carson and Lo 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Levene et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLiverpool Law Review
AbbreviationLiverp. Law Rev.
ISSN (print)0144-932X
ISSN (online)1572-8625

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