How to format your references using the Liverpool Law Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liverpool Law Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savolainen, Outi. 2011. Evolution. The genomic basis of local climatic adaptation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334: 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Di Franco, Carlo, and Mauro Paternostro. 2013. A no-go result on the purification of quantum states. Scientific reports 3: 1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Denommee, K. C., S. J. Bentley, and A. W. Droxler. 2014. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Scientific reports 4: 3876.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hobmayer, B., F. Rentzsch, K. Kuhn, C. M. Happel, C. C. von Laue, P. Snyder, U. Rothbächer, and T. W. Holstein. 2000. WNT signalling molecules act in axis formation in the diploblastic metazoan Hydra. Nature 407: 186–189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison, R. Giles. 2014. Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brown, Steven R., John E. Hartley, Jim Hill, Nigel Scott, and J. Graham Williams, ed. 2012. Contemporary Coloproctology. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlova, Margarita. 2009. Sustainable Development and Education. In Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable Development: Empowering Individuals for the Future, ed. Margarita Pavlova, 45–65. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liverpool Law Review.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Oceans Endure on Super-Earths. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort. GGD-99-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pope, Chrystina. 2010. Words in the Garden. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sutherland, John. 2016. He Loved Opium, Murder and Wordsworth. New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savolainen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Savolainen 2011; Di Franco and Paternostro 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Di Franco and Paternostro 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hobmayer et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLiverpool Law Review
AbbreviationLiverp. Law Rev.
ISSN (print)0144-932X
ISSN (online)1572-8625

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