How to format your references using the Liverpool Law Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liverpool Law Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Quirin. 2003. NATO reform promises more publicity for less science. Nature 422: 248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kampmann, Martin, and Günter Blobel. 2009. Biochemistry. Nascent proteins caught in the act. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 1352–1353.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer, John P., Evelina Dineva, and Linda B. Smith. 2009. Comment on “Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325: 1624; author reply 1624.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brinster, Sophie, Gilles Lamberet, Bart Staels, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Alexandra Gruss, and Claire Poyart. 2009. Type II fatty acid synthesis is not a suitable antibiotic target for Gram-positive pathogens. Nature 458: 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, Franklin B. 2008. Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Goswami, Meeta, S. R. Pandi-Perumal, and Michael J. Thorpy, ed. 2010. Narcolepsy: A Clinical Guide. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Viskari, L., G. Sha, and S. P. Ringer. 2016. Towards new aluminium alloys through advances in atom probe microscopy. In ICAA13 Pittsburgh: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Aluminum Alloys, ed. Hasso Weiland, Anthony D. Rollett, and William A. Cassada, 29–30. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liverpool Law Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. Why Zebra Refused To Be Saddled With Domesticity. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 21.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Food Assistance: Computerized Information Matching Could Reduce Fraud and Abuse in the Food Stamp Program. T-RCED-98-254. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosenfeld, Elaine G. 2009. The ascent of women to senior leadership positions in the financial services industry: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. Clinton Set for a Vacation Of Sports and Lots of Talk. New York Times, December 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2003; Kampmann and Blobel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kampmann and Blobel 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Brinster et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLiverpool Law Review
AbbreviationLiverp. Law Rev.
ISSN (print)0144-932X
ISSN (online)1572-8625

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