How to format your references using the Acta Tropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Tropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bains, W., 2012. Comment on “Orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).” Science 337, 1173; author reply 1173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coates, J.C., de Bono, M., 2002. Antagonistic pathways in neurons exposed to body fluid regulate social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 419, 925–929.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor, M.H., Sun, X., Al-Hashimi, H.M., 2010. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science 327, 202–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zou, D.-J., Feinstein, P., Rivers, A.L., Mathews, G.A., Kim, A., Greer, C.A., Mombaerts, P., Firestein, S., 2004. Postnatal refinement of peripheral olfactory projections. Science 304, 1976–1979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell, R.S., Cosner, C., 2004. Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Moriarty, T.F., Zaat, S.A.J., Busscher, H.J. (Eds.), 2013. Biomaterials Associated Infection: Immunological Aspects and Antimicrobial Strategies. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sezgin, E., Özkan, S., 2014. Assessment of Information Technology Use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Empirical Investigation in Five Cases, in: Devos, J., Landeghem, H. van, Deschoolmeester, D. (Eds.), Information Systems for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: State of Art of IS Research in SMEs, Progress in IS. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 97–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Tropica.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. These Are Each State’s Most Commonly Misspelled Word On Google [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Implementation of Section 203, Public Law 91-441, on Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs (No. B-167034). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajendran, N., 2010. Assessment of upper extremity strength, power, and flexibility characteristics of college-aged male and female students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, P.S., 2017. Ruling on E.U. Trade Deals Retains a Hurdle for Brexit Negotiations. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bains, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bains, 2012; Coates and de Bono, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coates and de Bono, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zou et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Tropica
AbbreviationActa Trop.
ISSN (print)0001-706X
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases

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