How to format your references using the Acta Tropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Tropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aarestrup, F., 2012. Sustainable farming: Get pigs off antibiotics. Nature 486, 465–466.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicogna, I., Wahr, J., 2006. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science 311, 1754–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, X., Zhou, Z., Wang, X., 2000. The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. Nature 408, 705–708.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Papadakis, G., Tsortos, A., Kordas, A., Tiniakou, I., Morou, E., Vontas, J., Kardassis, D., Gizeli, E., 2013. Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR. Sci. Rep. 3, 2033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier, E., 2005. Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Dodero, J.M., Palomo-Duarte, M., Karampiperis, P. (Eds.), 2012. Metadata and Semantics Research: 6th Research Conference, MTSR 2012, Cádiz, Spain, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, S.A., Tarantino, I., Martin, D.J., Schmied, B.M., 2012. Pancreatic Surgery: Beyond the Traditional Limits, in: Otto, F., Lutz, M.P. (Eds.), Early Gastrointestinal Cancers, Recent Results in Cancer Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Tropica.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, H., 2017. Check Out The Amazing Behavior Of These Fish As They Try To Guard Against Predators [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Use of Computers at Naval Laboratories (No. B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, K., 2017. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Narratives: Personalization of Delivery via Brief Experimental Analysis (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J., 2017. What if Platforms Like Facebook Are Too Big to Regulate? New York Times MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aarestrup, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Aarestrup, 2012; Velicogna and Wahr, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velicogna and Wahr, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Papadakis et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Tropica
AbbreviationActa Trop.
ISSN (print)0001-706X
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases

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