How to format your references using the Plasmid citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasmid. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, B., 2014. Stroke. Nature 510, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Queller, D.C., Strassmann, J.E., 2002. The many selves of social insects. Science 296, 311–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C.G., Power, J.A., Punongbayan, R.S., 2002. Pinatubo eruption. “To make grow.” Science 295, 1241–1242.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barken, D., Wang, C.J., Kearns, J., Cheong, R., Hoffmann, A., Levchenko, A., 2005. Comment on “Oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling control the dynamics of gene expression.” Science 308, 52; author reply 52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods, L.C., 2005. Theory of Tokamak Transport. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Eggersglüß, S., 2012. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Skrabanek, P., Majerík, F., 2016. Simplified Version of White Wine Grape Berries Detector Based on SVM and HOG Features, in: Silhavy, R., Senkerik, R., Oplatkova, Z.K., Silhavy, P., Prokopova, Z. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the 5th Computer Science On-Line Conference 2016 (CSOC2016), Vol 1, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasmid.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. Rescuers Battle To Save Remaining Whales After Hundreds Die In Huge Mass Stranding [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad (No. 126497). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freedman, R., 2014. Assessing the functional recovery and connectivity potential of restored estuaries in southern California using juvenile predator fish movements (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L., 2012. Adjusting a Waistline for a Wedding, but at What Cost? New York Times ST19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Owens, 2014; Queller and Strassmann, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Queller and Strassmann, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Barken et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasmid
ISSN (print)0147-619X
ScopeMolecular Biology

Other styles