How to format your references using the Acta Radiologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Radiologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith A. Screening for drug discovery: the leading question. Nature 2002;418:453–459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurtz J, Franz K. Innate defence: evidence for memory in invertebrate immunity. Nature 2003;425:37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loewe L, Textor V, Scherer S. High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli. Science 2003;302:1558–1560.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li N, Wang H, Misra A, et al. In situ nanoindentation study of plastic co-deformation in Al-TiN nanocomposites. Sci Rep 2014;4:6633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouchet O. Wireless Optical Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2012.
An edited book
Nijman JE, Werner WG (eds). Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 2012: Legal Equality and the International Rule of Law - Essays in Honour of P.H. Kooijmans. The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Laxmi BP, Chilambuchelvan A. Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding with GSS Algorithm. In: Das VV, Stephen J (eds) Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing: Third International Conference, CNC 2012, Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012:25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Radiologica.

Blog post
Evans K. A Plastic Surgeon Used A Golden Mathematical Ratio To “Prove” This Is The Most Beautiful Person In The World. IFLScience Available from: 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Transportation: Experts Identified Areas for Operational Improvements without Implementing Organizational Changes. GAO-17-478, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 18, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osterhout HL. No More “Mad Money”: Salvaging the Commander’s Emergency Response Program. Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Give My Regards To E Street. New York Times, September 8, 2017, AR37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Radiologica
AbbreviationActa Radiol.
ISSN (print)0284-1851
ISSN (online)1600-0455
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles