How to format your references using the Acta Radiologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Radiologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hecht SS. Perspective: Tackling the real issues. Nature 2011;471:S18.
A journal article with 2 authors
Philpotts AR, Dickson LD. The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma. Nature 2000;406:59–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Siegel DA, Doney SC, Yoder JA. The North Atlantic spring phytoplankton bloom and Sverdrup’s critical depth hypothesis. Science 2002;296:730–733.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Greiner M, Mandel O, Hänsch TW, et al. Collapse and revival of the matter wave field of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature 2002;419:51–54.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory J. Central Counterparties. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Kern-Isberner G, Rödder W, Kulmann F (eds). Conditionals, Information, and Inference: International Workshop, WCII 2002, Hagen, Germany, May 13-15, 2002, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Iltanen S. Cellular Automata in Urban Spatial Modelling. In: Heppenstall AJ, Crooks AT, See LM, et al. (eds) Agent-Based Models of Geographical Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012:69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Radiologica.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scorpions Have Similar Tastes In Interior Burrow Design. IFLScience Available from: 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G). GAO-03-584G, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 1, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim G. Development of a nutrition-based curriculum for farm-to-school programs for the fourth and fifth grades. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich N. Forever and Ever. New York Times, November 28, 2012, MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Radiologica
AbbreviationActa Radiol.
ISSN (print)0284-1851
ISSN (online)1600-0455
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles