How to format your references using the Acta Radiologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Radiologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Budget crisis forces hard choices on US high-energy physics. Nature 2000;404:909–910.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gabaldón T, Huynen MA. Reconstruction of the proto-mitochondrial metabolism. Science 2003;301:609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv U, Laurat P, Klein J. Fluidity of water confined to subnanometre films. Nature 2001;413:51–54.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee DM, Yeoman RR, Battaglia DE, et al. Live birth after ovarian tissue transplant. Nature 2004;428:137–138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer PD. Mathematical Journeys. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Noia TD, Buccafurri F (eds). E-Commerce and Web Technologies: 10th International Conference, EC-Web 2009, Linz, Austria, September 1-4, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Shah DU, Clifford MJ. Compaction, Permeability and Flow Simulation for Liquid Composite Moulding of Natural Fibre Composites. In: Salit MS, Jawaid M, Yusoff NB, et al. (eds) Manufacturing of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015:65–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Radiologica.

Blog post
Andrew E. Worried About Arsenic In Your Baby’s Rice Cereal? There Are Other Foods That Can Provide Essential Iron. IFLScience Available from: 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hazardous Materials: Federal Training for First Responders to Highway and Railroad Incidents. RCED-89-146FS, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 26, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Small CR. An investigation on the effect(s) of different modes of intervention for weight management on HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol production among United States veterans. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Where the Romanovs Became Holy Martyrs. New York Times, August 3, 2008, TR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Radiologica
AbbreviationActa Radiol.
ISSN (print)0284-1851
ISSN (online)1600-0455
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles