How to format your references using the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. (2008). Science careers. A self-made climber. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882), 1515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valiela, I., & Fox, S. E. (2008). Ecology. Managing coastal wetlands. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, X., Gross, R. L., & Suits, A. G. (2001). “Heavy electron” photoelectron spectroscopy: rotationally resolved ion pair imaging of CH3+. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2527–2529.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thibault-Starzyk, F., Seguin, E., Thomas, S., Daturi, M., Arnolds, H., & King, D. A. (2009). Real-time infrared detection of cyanide flip on silver-alumina NOx removal catalyst. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1048–1051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Preber, B. J. (2014). Financial Expert Witness Communication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Broekmans, M. A. T. M. (Ed.). (2012). Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McFarland, E. G. (2013). Indications and Evidence for CTC. In B. D. Cash (Ed.), Colorectal Cancer Screening and Computerized Tomographic Colonography: A Comprehensive Overview (pp. 59–72). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 23). Scientists Successfully Insert Woolly Mammoth DNA Into Elephant Genome. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Early Childhood Education: What Are the Costs of High-Quality Programs? (No. HRD-90-43BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripamer, A. J. (2013). Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Evaluations in the Fort Zumwalt School District (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin, S. (2013, September 10). The Border Is a Back Door for U.S. Device Searches. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pain, 2008; Valiela & Fox, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valiela & Fox, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Liu, Gross, & Suits, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Thibault-Starzyk et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
AbbreviationJ. Subst. Abuse Treat.
ISSN (print)0740-5472
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health
Clinical Psychology

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