How to format your references using the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). AAAS members fret over links with theological foundation. Nature, 403(6772), 819.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rikken, G. L., & Raupach, E. (2000). Enantioselective magnetochiral photochemistry. Nature, 405(6789), 932–935.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isabel, G., Pascual, A., & Preat, T. (2004). Exclusive consolidated memory phases in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 1024–1027.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ohto, U., Fukase, K., Miyake, K., & Satow, Y. (2007). Crystal structures of human MD-2 and its complex with antiendotoxic lipid IVa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5831), 1632–1634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morri, G., & Mazza, A. (2014). Property Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sullivan, R. J. (Ed.). (2015). BRAF Targets in Melanoma: Biological Mechanisms, Resistance, and Drug Discovery (Vol. 82). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ensor, M. O. (2016). South Sudanese Diaspora Children: Contested Notions of Childhood, Uprootedness, and Belonging Among Young Refugees in the U.S. In M. L. Seeberg & E. M. Goździak (Eds.), Contested Childhoods: Growing up in Migrancy: Migration, Governance, Identities (pp. 61–77). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 4). NASA Debuts 3D Images Of Mars’ Weird And Wonderful Polar Ice Caps. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). The United States in Europe: Staying the Course to Win the Peace (No. 147981). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, R. A. (2011). Spectroelectrochemical Sensing and Detection of Zinc in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammerty on a Bismuth Film Electrode [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, October 15). In Season of Defense, Recalling Swoboda’s Catch. New York Times, B19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Rikken & Raupach, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rikken & Raupach, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Isabel et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ohto et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
AbbreviationJ. Subst. Abuse Treat.
ISSN (print)0740-5472
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Phychiatric Mental Health
Clinical Psychology

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