How to format your references using the Acta Palaeontologica Polonica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. 2007. Astronomy. From darkness to light. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5844): 1511–1512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner, A. and West, S.A. 2004. Ecology. Spite among siblings. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5689): 1413–1414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Innes, C., Anand, M. and Bauch, C.T. 2013. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. Scientific reports 3: 2689.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chapelle, F.H., O’Neill, K., Bradley, P.M., Methé, B.A., Ciufo, S.A., Knobel, L.L. and Lovley, D.R. 2002. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens. Nature 415 (6869): 312–315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron, E.N. 2013. Game Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, .
An edited book
2016. Sustainable Water Management: New Perspectives, Design, and Practices. In Nakagami, K., Kubota, J. and Setiawan, B.I. (eds.) Springer, Singapore, .
A chapter in an edited book
Kainen, P.C., Kůrková, V. and Sanguineti, M. 2013. Approximating Multivariable Functions by Feedforward Neural Nets. In: Bianchini, M., Maggini, M. and Jain, L.C. (eds.), Handbook on Neural Information Processing, 143–181. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015. Pluto and Charon Show Their True Colors. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, D. 2009. Event detection in sensor networks.Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DCpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. 2017. Philip Gossett, Scholar, 75; Revived Lost Opera Scores. New York Times: B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gardner and West 2004; Bromm 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner and West 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chapelle et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Palaeontologica Polonica
AbbreviationActa Palaeontol. Pol.
ISSN (print)0567-7920
ISSN (online)1732-2421

Other styles