How to format your references using the Journal of Economics and Business citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Economics and Business. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C. (2012). Diagnosis: To catch a killer. Nature, 489(7417), S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olivera, B. M., & Teichert, R. W. (2011). Neuroscience: chemical ecology of pain. Nature, 479(7373), 306–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parsons, T., Ji, C., & Kirby, E. (2008). Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin. Nature, 454(7203), 509–510.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gazin, C., Wajapeyee, N., Gobeil, S., Virbasius, C.-M., & Green, M. R. (2007). An elaborate pathway required for Ras-mediated epigenetic silencing. Nature, 449(7165), 1073–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandrea, N., & Stănescu, N.-D. (2015). Dynamics of the Rigid Solid with General Constraints by a Multibody Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sawaguchi, T. (Ed.). (2014). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: From Pathophysiological Prospects. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulton, A. M., & Amberman, K. D. (2006). How ant nests increase soil biota richness and abundance: a field experiment. In D. L. Hawksworth & A. T. Bull (Eds.), Arthropod Diversity and Conservation (pp. 55–68). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Economics and Business.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 19). Sea anemone genetics are surprisingly plant-like. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Head Start: Research Provides Little Information on Impact of Current Program (No. HEHS-97-59). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, A. W. (2013). Shepherd leadership of Church of God pastors and how this relates to ministerial effectiveness (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2017, January 31). At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Olivera & Teichert, 2011; Willyard, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olivera & Teichert, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Parsons, Ji, & Kirby, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gazin, Wajapeyee, Gobeil, Virbasius, & Green, 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Economics and Business
AbbreviationJ. Econ. Bus.
ISSN (print)0148-6195
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
Economics and Econometrics

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