How to format your references using the Acta Paediatrica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Paediatrica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Legenstein R. Computer science: Nanoscale connections for brain-like circuits. Nature 2015; 521:37–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pitt JN, Ferré-D’Amaré AR. Rapid construction of empirical RNA fitness landscapes. Science 2010; 330:376–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marcus G, Marblestone A, Dean T. Neuroscience. The atoms of neural computation. Science 2014; 346:551–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sumino A, Sumikama T, Iwamoto M, Dewa T, Oiki S. The open gate structure of the membrane-embedded KcsA potassium channel viewed from the cytoplasmic side. Sci Rep 2013; 3:1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murthy DNP, Kurvinen M, Töyrylä I. Warranty Fraud Management: Reducing Fraud and Other Excess Costs in Warranty and Service Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Kumar P. Socioeconomic and Environmental Implications of Agricultural Residue Burning: A Case Study of Punjab, India. Kumar S, Joshi L, eds. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. XIX, 144 p. 5 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Gehrlein WV, Lepelley D. Condorcet Efficiency and Social Homogeneity. In: Lepelley D, ed. Voting Paradoxes and Group Coherence: The Condorcet Efficiency of Voting Rules Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 157–98. (Studies in Choice and Welfare).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Paediatrica.

Blog post
Andrews R. China Scraps Coal Power Plants And Boosts Renewable Energy Investment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications Market in Canada. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: GGD-94-193R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuebbels PJ. Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Pick a Pocket, Any Pocket. New York Times 2010:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Paediatrica
AbbreviationActa Paediatr.
ISSN (print)0803-5253
ISSN (online)1651-2227
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles