How to format your references using the Neurochirurgie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurochirurgie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Silent No Longer: “Model Minority” Mobilizes. Science 2000;290:1072–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ingolia NT, Murray AW. Signal transduction. History matters. Science 2002;297:948–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han C, Ding H, Lv F. Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on an optical micro-fiber three-beam interferometer. Sci Rep 2014;4:7504.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wei BQ, Vajtai R, Jung Y, Ward J, Zhang R, Ramanath G, et al. Microfabrication technology: organized assembly of carbon nanotubes. Nature 2002;416:495–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau JYF. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Dilling J, Comyn M, Thompson J, Gwinner G, editors. TCP 2006: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 2006) held in Parksville, Canada, 3–8 September, 2006. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Heilmann C, Francis N. Retrieving and Displaying Content with Rest and Ajax. In: Francis MN, editor. Web Development Solutions: Ajax, APIs, Libraries, and Hosted Services Made Easy, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007, p. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurochirurgie.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Tree Can Grow Over 40 Different Kinds Of Fruit. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Job Training Partnership Act: Abuse of On-The-Job Training and Other Contracting Is an Ongoing Problem. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pincolini R. Latchkey girls. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy P, Stockman F. Public Rattled as Campaign Turns Coarser. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurochirurgie
ISSN (print)0028-3770
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles