How to format your references using the Neurochirurgie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurochirurgie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haddad NM. ECOLOGY. Corridors for people, corridors for nature. Science 2015;350:1166–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Theler D, Allain FH-T. Molecular biology: RNA modification does a regulatory two-step. Nature 2015;518:492–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffecker JF, Elias SA, O’Rourke DH. Anthropology. Out of Beringia? Science 2014;343:979–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Palmer MA, Bernhardt ES, Schlesinger WH, Eshleman KN, Foufoula-Georgiou E, Hendryx MS, et al. Science and regulation. Mountaintop mining consequences. Science 2010;327:148–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noyer J-M. Transformation of Collective Intelligences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Finn A, Curtis N, Pollard AJ, editors. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V. vol. 634. New York, NY: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Carrera Á, Iglesias CA. Improving Diagnosis Agents with Hybrid Hypotheses Confirmation Reasoning Techniques. In: Cossentino M, Kaisers M, Tuyls K, Weiss G, editors. Multi-Agent Systems: 9th European Workshop, EUMAS 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands, November 14-15, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurochirurgie.

Blog post
Hale T. The USSR Tried To Cover Up One Of The World’s Deadliest Nuclear Fallout Sites. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills AD. Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Five Years Later, A Different Outcome. New York Times 2011:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurochirurgie
ISSN (print)0028-3770
ScopeClinical Neurology

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