How to format your references using the Stem Cells and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stem Cells and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wyatt TD (2009). Fifty years of pheromones. Nature 457: 262–263.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yashin VV and AC Balazs (2006). Pattern formation and shape changes in self-oscillating polymer gels. Science 314: 798–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alexander DTL, PA Crozier and JR Anderson (2008). Brown carbon spheres in East Asian outflow and their optical properties. Science 321: 833–836.
A journal article with 51 or more authors
1. Jain A, V Aravindan, S Jayaraman, PS Kumar, R Balasubramanian, S Ramakrishna, S Madhavi and MP Srinivasan (2013). Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors. Sci Rep 3: 3002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sanchez A and B Carro (2017). Digital Services in the 21st Century (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
1. Oostra R-J (2007). Steding’s and Virágh’s Scanning Electron Microscopy Atlas of the Developing Human Heart (New York, NY: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
1. Norrie MC (2011). Desktop, Tabletop or Mobile? In Search Computing: Trends and Developments, Ceri, S and M Brambilla, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 46–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stem Cells and Development.

Blog post
1. Evans K (2016). Majority Of Humpback Whales Taken Off Endangered Species List (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1986). Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 12 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Li H (2017). Improvement of Compressive Strength of Oil Well Cement by Agitation. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G (2011). Valentine in Boston? That’s Entertainment. New York Times B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStem Cells and Development
AbbreviationStem Cells Dev.
ISSN (print)1547-3287
ISSN (online)1557-8534
ScopeCell Biology
Developmental Biology

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