How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul Smaglik. 2002. A youthful field. Nature 419, 6908 (October 2002), 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zong-Feng Yang and Jun-Hong Zhou. 2013. Can we identify source lithology of basalt? Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 1856.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. M. Erickson, K. C. Rogers, and S. A. Yerby. 2001. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Nature 412, 6845 (July 2001), 429–433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mark R. Behrens, Nedim Mutlu, Sarbani Chakraborty, Razvan Dumitru, Wen Zhi Jiang, Bradley J. Lavallee, Patricia L. Herman, Thomas E. Clemente, and Donald P. Weeks. 2007. Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science 316, 5828 (May 2007), 1185–1188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carl Drago. 2015. Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Davide Maltoni. 2009. Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrew M. Frederickson, Michael S. Gold, and Raymond F. Sekula. 2016. Pathogenesis of Trigeminal Neuralgia. In Microvascular Decompression Surgery, Shi-Ting Li, Jun Zhong and Raymond F. Sekula Jr. (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2015. Supervolcano Magma Chambers Recharge In Just 500 Years. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Student Testing: Issues Related to Voluntary National Mathematics and Reading Tests. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jessica L. Randolph. 2017. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of FMS Shoulder Mobility and Reported Upper Body Injury in Collegiate Football Athletes at a Division II Midwestern University. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary Billard. 2010. One Store Scoops Up The Lot. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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