How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joel M. Bowman. 2008. Chemistry. Beyond Born-Oppenheimer. Science 319, 5859 (January 2008), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takashi Komatsu and Takao Itino. 2014. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew. Sci. Rep. 4, (January 2014), 3922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hong Qian, Xianli Wang, and Yangjian Zhang. 2012. Comment on “Disentangling the drivers of β diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients.” Science 335, 6076 (March 2012), 1573; author reply 1573.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ying-Jie Zhang, Wei Han, Yun-Jie Xia, Jun-Peng Cao, and Heng Fan. 2014. Quantum speed limit for arbitrary initial states. Sci. Rep. 4, (May 2014), 4890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. W. Halbich. 1993. Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.
An edited book
Takashi Kato (Ed.). 2008. Liquid Crystalline Functional Assemblies and Their Supramolecular Structures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Spencer Krum, William Van Hevelingen, Ben Kero, James Turnbull, and Jeffery McCune. 2013. Externalizing Puppet Configuration. In Pro Puppet: The Definitive Guide to Selling Abroad Profitably, William Van Hevelingen, Ben Kero, James Turnbull and Jeffery McCune (eds.). Apress, Berkeley, CA, 141–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2016. Cherry Concentrate Can Lower Blood Pressure As Much As Drugs, Our Study Finds. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 7, 2000, Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keri E. Belflower. 2012. The relationship between demographic and employment variables of job satisfaction among emergency nurses. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Rothenberg. 2017. The Matches at Indian Wells Come With a Generous Serving of Opulence. New York Times, SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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