How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roger D. Launius. 2012. Neil Armstrong (1930-2012). Nature 489, 7416 (September 2012), 368.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guofu Xu and Guilu Long. 2014. Universal nonadiabatic geometric gates in two-qubit decoherence-free subspaces. Sci. Rep. 4, (October 2014), 6814.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Schätz, U. Schramm, and D. Habs. 2001. Crystalline ion beams. Nature 412, 6848 (August 2001), 717–720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Arjan Pol, Klaas Heijmans, Harry R. Harhangi, Dario Tedesco, Mike S. M. Jetten, and Huub J. M. Op den Camp. 2007. Methanotrophy below pH 1 by a new Verrucomicrobia species. Nature 450, 7171 (December 2007), 874–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertrand Renaud, Kyung-Hwan Kim, and Man Cho. 2016. Dynamics of Housing in East Asia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Raymond S. Douglas, Allison N. McCoy, and Shivani Gupta (Eds.). 2015. Thyroid Eye Disease. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Richard Zanibbi, Dorothea Blostein, and James R. Cordy. 2008. Decision-Based Specification and Comparison of Table Recognition Algorithms. In Machine Learning in Document Analysis and Recognition, Simone Marinai and Hiromichi Fujisawa (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 71–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2015. What Would Asia Look Like If All The Earth’s Ice Melted? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Executive Office of the President: Analysis of Mandated Report on Key Information Technology Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chao Yue Tian. 2010. Studies of equilibrium conditions in housing markets. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda F. Burghardt. 2006. The Legacies They Left. New York Times, 14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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