How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. D. Nordhaus. 2001. Climate change. Global warming economics. Science 294, 5545 (November 2001), 1283–1284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Romain Bouziat and Bana Jabri. 2015. IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier. Science 350, 6262 (November 2015), 742–743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ted Goebel, Michael R. Waters, and Dennis H. O’Rourke. 2008. The late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas. Science 319, 5869 (March 2008), 1497–1502.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wendy L. Mao, Ho-Kwang Mao, Peter J. Eng, Thomas P. Trainor, Matthew Newville, Chi-Chang Kao, Dion L. Heinz, Jinfu Shu, Yue Meng, and Russell J. Hemley. 2003. Bonding changes in compressed superhard graphite. Science 302, 5644 (October 2003), 425–427.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Philip Best. 2005. Implementing Value at Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Raymond Charles Rauscher. 2015. Sustainable Neighbourhoods in Australia: City of Sydney Urban Planning. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Marién Pascual and Sergio Roa. 2013. Conclusions and Future Perspectives. In Epigenetic Approaches to Allergy Research, Sergio Roa (ed.). Springer, New York, NY, 63–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. FDA Considering Releasing Genetically-Modified Mosquitos In Florida. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Tactical Airlift: Issues Concerning Air Force Plans for Pacific Distribution System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surinder Paul Sharma. 2017. U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erin St. John Kelly. 1997. Mariners, Still Playing for Guts, Glory and No Pay, Near a Title. New York Times, 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

Other styles