How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dan Yakir. 2002. Global enzymes: sphere of influence. Nature 416, 6883 (April 2002), 795.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Mougi and M. Kondoh. 2012. Diversity of interaction types and ecological community stability. Science 337, 6092 (July 2012), 349–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu-Zhong Chen, Zi-Gang Huang, and Ying-Cheng Lai. 2014. Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Sci. Rep. 4, (August 2014), 6121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bing Chen, Erik M. Vogan, Haiyun Gong, John J. Skehel, Don C. Wiley, and Stephen C. Harrison. 2005. Structure of an unliganded simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 core. Nature 433, 7028 (February 2005), 834–841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keith T. Sillar, Laurence D. Picton, and William J. Heitler. 2016. The Neuroethology of Predation and Escape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Marina L. Gavrilova, C. J. Kenneth Tan, and Alexei Sourin (Eds.). 2016. Transactions on Computational Science XXVIII: Special Issue on Cyberworlds and Cybersecurity. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tushar Yadav, Alka A. Mungray, and Arvind K. Mungray. 2014. Fabricated Nanoparticles: Current Status and Potential Phytotoxic Threats. In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology volume: With Cumulative and Comprehensive Index Subjects Covered Volumes 221-230, David M. Whitacre (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 83–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2013. Bacteria Can Take Up Ancient DNA. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Highway Funding: Problems With Highway Trust Fund Information Can Affect State Highway Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Regina L. Marcheschi. 2010. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding individuals with epilepsy by marriage and family therapists and social workers. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Hollander. 1999. Home Woes Continue. New York Times, 810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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