How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on the Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andy Johnson. 2013. IBI* series winner. Radiation and atomic literacy for nonscientists. Science 342, 6157 (October 2013), 436–437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucy Shapiro and Richard Losick. 2013. Retrospective. Francois Jacob (1920-2013). Science 340, 6135 (May 2013), 939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prosenjit Ghosh, Carmala N. Garzione, and John M. Eiler. 2006. Rapid uplift of the Altiplano revealed through 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates. Science 311, 5760 (January 2006), 511–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lian Pin Koh, Robert R. Dunn, Navjot S. Sodhi, Robert K. Colwell, Heather C. Proctor, and Vincent S. Smith. 2004. Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis. Science 305, 5690 (September 2004), 1632–1634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter Matthys and John E. Lochman. 2016. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Michel Destrade and Giuseppe Saccomandi (Eds.). 2007. Waves in Nonlinear Pre-Stressed Materials. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Caroline Logan. 2016. Risk Formulation: The New Frontier in Risk Assessment and Management. In Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention, D. Richard Laws and William O’Donohue (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on the Web.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2016. How Beetles Operate Penises Longer Than Their Bodies. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jessica K. Hylton. 2016. Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Emily Steel and Michael J. de la MERCED. 2017. Discovery Closes In on Acquiring Scripps Networks as Viacom Exits Competition. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on the Web
ISSN (print)1559-1131
ISSN (online)1559-114X
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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