How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
David E. Schindel. 2010. Biology without borders. Nature 467, 7317 (October 2010), 779–781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yun Kyung Lee and Sarkis K. Mazmanian. 2010. Has the microbiota played a critical role in the evolution of the adaptive immune system? Science 330, 6012 (December 2010), 1768–1773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deborah K. Smith, Johnson R. Cann, and Javier Escartín. 2006. Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 442, 7101 (July 2006), 440–443.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gary Zabow, Stephen Dodd, John Moreland, and Alan Koretsky. 2008. Micro-engineered local field control for high-sensitivity multispectral MRI. Nature 453, 7198 (June 2008), 1058–1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Savo Glisic. 2005. Advanced Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Elias Greenbaum and David Zhou (Eds.). 2009. Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolfram von Oertzen and Matko Milin. 2014. Covalent Binding on the Femtometer Scale: Nuclear Molecules. In Clusters in Nuclei, Volume 3, Christian Beck (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 147–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Josh Davis. 2017. Fungi Found In Toxic Lake Produce New Antibiotic. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Freight Railroads: Highlights of GAO Report on Freight Rail Industry Performance, Competition, and Capacity. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Natalie Loretz. 2009. Human trafficking: Identification, education, and awareness: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary Billard. 2010. A Classic Shoe, Restyled. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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