How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jeremy E. Turnbull. 2011. Chemistry. Getting the farm out of pharma for heparin production. Science 334, 6055 (October 2011), 462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Janna E. Slessareva and Henrik G. Dohlman. 2006. G protein signaling in yeast: new components, new connections, new compartments. Science 314, 5804 (December 2006), 1412–1413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Timothy E. J. Behrens, Laurence T. Hunt, and Matthew F. S. Rushworth. 2009. The computation of social behavior. Science 324, 5931 (May 2009), 1160–1164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Suman K. Das, Sandra Eder, Silvia Schauer, Clemens Diwoky, Hannes Temmel, Barbara Guertl, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Kuppusamy P. Tamilarasan, Pooja Kumari, Michael Trauner, Robert Zimmermann, Paul Vesely, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner, and Gerald Hoefler. 2011. Adipose triglyceride lipase contributes to cancer-associated cachexia. Science 333, 6039 (July 2011), 233–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robin Landa. 2016. Advertising by Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mihail C. Roco and William Sims Bainbridge (Eds.). 2007. Nanotechnology: Societal Implications: Individual Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Albrecht Bertram and Rainer Glüge. 2015. FOUNDATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS. In Solid Mechanics: Theory, Modeling, and Problems, Rainer Glüge (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 164–311.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Ben Taub. 2016. It’s Going To Take Another 300 Years To Discover All 16,000 Amazonian Tree Species. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Truck Safety: Need to Better Ensure Correction of Serious Inspection Violations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matthew Wayne Deshotel. 2017. Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda Saslow. 2009. Big Breaks on Unpaid Parking Tickets, for a Limited Time Only. New York Times, LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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