How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donna M. Fekete. 2003. Developmental biology. Rocks that roll zebrafish. Science 302, 5643 (October 2003), 241–242.
A journal article with 2 authors
Masao Mori and Masayuki Umemura. 2006. The evolution of galaxies from primeval irregulars to present-day ellipticals. Nature 440, 7084 (March 2006), 644–647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minsoo Kim, Christopher V. Carman, and Timothy A. Springer. 2003. Bidirectional transmembrane signaling by cytoplasmic domain separation in integrins. Science 301, 5640 (September 2003), 1720–1725.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Allon I. Hochbaum, Renkun Chen, Raul Diaz Delgado, Wenjie Liang, Erik C. Garnett, Mark Najarian, Arun Majumdar, and Peidong Yang. 2008. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires. Nature 451, 7175 (January 2008), 163–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hans-Joachim Hübschmann. 2015. Handbook of GC-MS. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rong Wang and Cuiping Zhu (Eds.). 2015. Annual Report on the Development of International Relations in the Indian Ocean Region (2014). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Astrid H. Gesche. 2006. Genetic Testing and Human Genetic Databases. In The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and Screening: The Australian Case, Michela Betta (ed.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. Five Cool Ways To Trick Your Brain. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. High-Speed Ground Transportation: Issues Affecting Development in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katrina Fengler. 2017. Everyday Aesthetics and the Environmental Significance of Everyday Aesthetics: A High School Art Unit of Instruction Promoting Positive Attitudinal Changes towards the Environment. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Corkery. 2017. Big Banks Pass the Fed’s Stress Tests, Setting Up Large Dividend Payments. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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