How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vlatko Vedral. 2012. Physics. Moving beyond trust in quantum computing. Science 335, 6066 (January 2012), 294–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang Xia and Jian-Ping Gong. 2014. Impact of recombinant globular adiponectin on early warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat bile duct after liver transplantation. Sci. Rep. 4, (September 2014), 6426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shin-Ichiro Tanaka, Masaharu Matsunami, and Shin-Ichi Kimura. 2013. An investigation of electron-phonon coupling via phonon dispersion measurements in graphite using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 3, (October 2013), 3031.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Jill Harrison, Susie B. Corley, Elizabeth C. Moylan, Debbie L. Alexander, Robert W. Scotland, and Jane A. Langdale. 2005. Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution. Nature 434, 7032 (March 2005), 509–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dev G. Raheja and Michael Allocco. 2006. Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jayant Daithankar. 2014. Transportation Management with SAP TM 9.0: A Hands-On Guide to Configuring, Implementing, and Optimizing SAP TM. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Giovanni Vulpetti, Les Johnson, and Gregory L. Matloff. 2015. Non-Rocket In-Space Propulsion. In Solar Sails: A Novel Approach to Interplanetary Travel, Les Johnson and Gregory L. Matloff (eds.). Springer, New York, NY, 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Ben Taub. 2016. Archaeologists Have Discovered A Brand New Ancient God. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Need To Improve Management of ACDA’s Automatic Data Processing and Operations Analysis Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walter Clifford Barkley. 2008. Mars rover - Laser focusing and optimization. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James Barron. 2016. The Public Face and Voice of Crazy Eddie Recalls the Real One. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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