How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexandra Barratt. 2015. Perspective: The risks of overdiagnosis. Nature 527, 7578 (November 2015), S104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linda C. Hsieh-Wilson and Matthew E. Griffin. 2013. Chemistry. Improving biologic drugs via total chemical synthesis. Science 342, 6164 (December 2013), 1332–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gail Whiteman, Chris Hope, and Peter Wadhams. 2013. Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature 499, 7459 (July 2013), 401–403.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hui Kong, Mengou Zhu, Fengyun Cui, Shuyang Wang, Xue Gao, Shaohua Lu, Ying Wu, and Hongguang Zhu. 2014. Quantitative assessment of short amplicons in FFPE-derived long-chain RNA. Sci. Rep. 4, (November 2014), 7246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Volkhard May and Oliver Kühn. 2007. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Wilhelm Burger. 2008. Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Introduction using Java. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Stephen P. Heyneman and Jeongwoo Lee. 2013. World-Class Universities: The Sector Requirements. In Institutionalization of World-Class University in Global Competition, Jung Cheol Shin and Barbara M. Kehm (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Alfredo Carpineti. 2017. Gravitational Waves Observed For A Third Time. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Broadcast and Cable Television: Requirements for Identifying Sponsored Programming Should Be Clarified. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephen Paulone. 2013. Mergers and Acquisitions: Examining Managerial Strategy Connection to Post Transaction Accounting Measures. Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kevin Sack. 2011. Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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