How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott. 2001. Last-minute floods sink research. Nature 413, 6855 (October 2001), 443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ronald Hanson and David D. Awschalom. 2008. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors. Nature 453, 7198 (June 2008), 1043–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robert J. Ross, Molly M. Weiner, and Haifan Lin. 2014. PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs in the soma. Nature 505, 7483 (January 2014), 353–359.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Changjiang Dong, Konstantinos Beis, Jutta Nesper, Anne L. Brunkan-Lamontagne, Bradley R. Clarke, Chris Whitfield, and James H. Naismith. 2006. Wza the translocon for E. coli capsular polysaccharides defines a new class of membrane protein. Nature 444, 7116 (November 2006), 226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deborah L. Cabaniss, Sabrina Cherry, Carolyn J. Douglas, Ruth L. Graver, and Anna R. Schwartz. 2013. Psychodynamic Formulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
K. Sahayaraj (Ed.). 2014. Basic and Applied Aspects of Biopesticides. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Siddhartha Bhattacharyya and Ujjwal Maulik. 2013. Binary Object Extraction by Bidirectional Self-Organizing Neural Network Architecture. In Soft Computing for Image and Multimedia Data Processing, Ujjwal Maulik (ed.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 109–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2016. Melting Glaciers, Shifting Biomes And Dying Trees In Our National Parks – Yet We Can Take Action On Climate Change. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Social Security Administration: Technology Modernization Needs Improved Planning and Performance Measures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marc Andrew Gomes. 2017. Cognitive science approaches to actor training: Interrogating conceptual language. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sarah Binder. 2017. Mitch McConnell’s Wizardry. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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