How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reuben Shaw. 2009. Journal club. A cancer researcher ponders a fundamental connection between nutrients and gene expression. Nature 462, 7275 (December 2009), 829.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abha Misra and Praveen Kumar. 2013. Periodic architecture for high performance shock absorbing composites. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 2056.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catherine Dulac, Lauren A. O’Connell, and Zheng Wu. 2014. Neural control of maternal and paternal behaviors. Science 345, 6198 (August 2014), 765–770.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pierangelo Metrangolo, Yvan Carcenac, Manu Lahtinen, Tullio Pilati, Kari Rissanen, Ashwani Vij, and Giuseppe Resnati. 2009. Nonporous organic solids capable of dynamically resolving mixtures of diiodoperfluoroalkanes. Science 323, 5920 (March 2009), 1461–1464.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiuchun Jiang and Caiping Zhang. 2015. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Fabrizio D’adda di Fagagna, Susanna Chiocca, Fraser McBlane, and Ugo Cavallaro (Eds.). 2007. Advances in Molecular Oncology: Edited under the auspices of the European Institute of Oncology (IEO) and The FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM). Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lars Johnsen. 2008. Open Educational Topic Maps: A Text-Oriented Perspective. In Scaling Topic Maps: Third International Conference on Topic Maps Research and Applications, TMRA 2007 Leipzig, Germany, October 11-12, 2007 Revised Selected Papers, Lutz Maicher and Lars Marius Garshol (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. Believe It Or Not, This Isn’t A Snake. So What Is It? IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Highway Safety: Factors Contributing to Traffic Crashes and NHTSA’s Efforts to Address Them. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yalda Nasrollahzadeh. 2013. Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia A. Olmsted. 1936. DEPUTY MAYOR IDEA NOT NEW; Tammany Objection to the Charter Plan Regarded as Baseless. New York Times, BOOKS20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Internet Technology
AbbreviationACM Trans. Internet Technol.
ISSN (print)1533-5399
ISSN (online)1557-6051

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