How to format your references using the Performance Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N.K. Logothetis, Bold claims for optogenetics, Nature. 468 (2010) E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, Applied physics. Triggering an optical transistor with one photon, Science. 341 (2013) 725–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Boudvillain, A. de Lencastre, A.M. Pyle, A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron, Nature. 406 (2000) 315–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.A. Silver, J. Lubke, B. Sakmann, D. Feldmeyer, High-probability uniquantal transmission at excitatory synapses in barrel cortex, Science. 302 (2003) 1981–1984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Stack, L.T. Ostrom, C.A. Wilhelmsen, Occupational Ergonomics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
G.A. Anastassiou, Intelligent Routines: Solving Mathematical Analysis with Matlab, Mathcad, Mathematica and Maple, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Cao, Legal Speech Acts as Intersubjective Communicative Action, in: W. Werner, D. Cao (Eds.), Interpretation, Law and the Construction of Meaning: Collected Papers on Legal Interpretation in Theory, Adjudication and Political Practice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Evaluation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What is Dark Lightning?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Weather Forecasting: National Weather Service Is Planning to Improve Service and Gain Efficiency, but Impacts of Potential Changes Are Not Yet Known, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.T. Ziegler, The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Turn Aside Case of Man Accusing C.I.A. of Torture, New York Times. (2007) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Evaluation
ISSN (print)0166-5316
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles