How to format your references using the Performance Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Stock, Geochemistry. The Hawaiian-Emperor bend: older than expected, Science. 313 (2006) 1250–1251.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.H. Tedford, C.R. Harington, An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America, Nature. 425 (2003) 388–390.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Yang, Z. Zhong, C.M. Lieber, Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires, Science. 310 (2005) 1304–1307.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Xu, S.C. Vogel, C. Jin, J. Frantti, Y. Zhao, Pressure-induced reversal between thermal contraction and expansion in ferroelectric PbTiO3, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3700.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Marti, Baustatik, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2014.
An edited book
J.A. Flannery, Eco-Landscape Design, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Görbil, E. Gelenbe, Design of a Mobile Agent-Based Adaptive Communication Middleware for Federations of Critical Infrastructure Simulations, in: E. Rome, R. Bloomfield (Eds.), Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 4th International Workshop, CRITIS 2009, Bonn, Germany, September 30 - October 2, 2009. Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 34–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Evaluation.

Blog post
J. Davis, Monkey Muggers Steal Tourists’ Belongings, Holding Them For Ransom In Exchange For Food, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Crop Forecasting by Satellite: Progress and Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. Jiang, Advanced techniques for semantic concept detection in general videos, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, A Different Way of Taking Off at J.F.K, New York Times. (2013) D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Evaluation
ISSN (print)0166-5316
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

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