How to format your references using the Performance Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.F. Agrawal, Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction, Nature. 411 (2001) 692–695.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Purves, S. Pacala, Predictive models of forest dynamics, Science. 320 (2008) 1452–1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.G. Angelakis, P. Das, C. Noh, Probing the topological properties of the Jackiw-Rebbi model with light, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Tang, C. Qiu, M. Ke, J. Lu, Y. Ye, Z. Liu, Anomalous refraction of airborne sound through ultrathin metasurfaces, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.G. Thomas, Greece, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, 2014.
An edited book
G.R. Visgilio, D.M. Whitelaw, eds., Acid in the Environment: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Azcue, N. Muler, Characterization of Value Functions, in: N. Muler (Ed.), Stochastic Optimization in Insurance: A Dynamic Programming Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 75–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Evaluation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Winter May Be Returning To Westeros, But Our Next Ice Age Is On Hold, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of Budget Authority Involved in Three Rescissions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.Y. Perilla, Support group for neonatal intensive care families: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Harney, A Hack for Dissidents: Cover the Phone’s Lens, New York Times. (2016) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Evaluation
ISSN (print)0166-5316
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles