How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ole Seehausen. 2015. Evolution: Beauty varies with the light. Nature 521, 7550 (May 2015), 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nigel Goldenfeld and Carl Woese. 2007. Biology’s next revolution. Nature 445, 7126 (January 2007), 369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Toshiya Kinoshita, Trevor Wenger, and David S. Weiss. 2006. A quantum Newton’s cradle. Nature 440, 7086 (April 2006), 900–903.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Justin L. Rubinstein, Mario La Rocca, John E. Vidale, Kenneth C. Creager, and Aaron G. Wech. 2008. Tidal modulation of nonvolcanic tremor. Science 319, 5860 (January 2008), 186–189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambos A. Charalambides. 2016. Discrete q-Distributions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Peter Bosch, David Gabelaia, and Jérôme Lang (Eds.). 2009. Logic, Language, and Computation: 7th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2007, Tbilisi, Georgia, October 1-5, 2007. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rizwan A. Khan. 2015. Introduction: The Use of Extrathecal CSF Shunts, Optional vs Mandatory, Unavoidable Complications. In Complications of CSF Shunting in Hydrocephalus: Prevention, Identification, and Management, Concezio Di Rocco, Mehmet Turgut, George Jallo and Juan F. Martínez-Lage (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 75–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2014. Not Too Brutish: Neanderthals Hunted Pigeons. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Financial Management: Briefing on the Federal Aviation Administration’s Inventory Accountability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hao Zhu. 2012. Outcomes of China Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program, 2003–2010. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Kalogerakis. 2012. A Life in Pictures. New York Times, MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)2160-6455
ISSN (online)2160-6463
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles