How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elisabeth Pain. 2008. Science careers. Sustaining forests in a changing world. Science 320, 5882 (June 2008), 1514–1517.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Scott Merrell and Stanley Falkow. 2004. Frontal and stealth attack strategies in microbial pathogenesis. Nature 430, 6996 (July 2004), 250–256.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. D. Archibald, A. O. Averianov, and E. G. Ekdale. 2001. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature 414, 6859 (November 2001), 62–65.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Ricardo, M. A. Carrigan, A. N. Olcott, and S. A. Benner. 2004. Borate minerals stabilize ribose. Science 303, 5655 (January 2004), 196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nak-Eon Choi and Jung H. Han. 2015. How Flavor Works. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ulrich Beck (Ed.). 2014. Ulrich Beck: Pioneer in Cosmopolitan Sociology and Risk Society. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Joanna A. Ellis-Monaghan and Iain Moffatt. 2013. Interactions with Graph Polynomials. In Graphs on Surfaces: Dualities, Polynomials, and Knots, Iain Moffatt (ed.). Springer, New York, NY, 61–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Kristy Hamilton. 2016. Why So Many People Regain Weight After Dieting. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standard, Model Year 2002. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wendy Martinez. 2010. “Straight Talk” on preventing HIV program—a grant thesis project. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George Lardner Jr. 2010. No Country for Second Chances. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)2160-6455
ISSN (online)2160-6463
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles