How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Jungkind. 2001. Tech.Sight. Molecular testing for infectious disease. Science 294, 5546 (November 2001), 1553–1555.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. C. Martin and E. M. Schuman. 2015. NEUROSCIENCE. Opting in or out of the network. Science 350, 6267 (December 2015), 1477–1478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas Euler, Peter B. Detwiler, and Winfried Denk. 2002. Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. Nature 418, 6900 (August 2002), 845–852.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, and G. Lima. 2013. Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 2316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alison F. Garton. 2008. Exploring Cognitive Development: The Child as Problem Solver. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Sjoukje Osinga, Gert Jan Hofstede, and Tim Verwaart (Eds.). 2011. Emergent Results of Artificial Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dongsheng Ma and Rajdeep Bondade. 2013. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters. In Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems, Rajdeep Bondade (ed.). Springer, New York, NY, 71–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Jonathan O`Callaghan. 2015. Fire Fountains on the Moon May Have Been Caused by Carbon Monoxide. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amy Christine Oakes. 2006. States in Crisis: How Governments Respond to Domestic Unrest. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly Crow. 2000. Watching the World, Never Mind the Cars, Go By. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)2160-6455
ISSN (online)2160-6463
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles