How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lauren Gravitz. 2013. Cancer immunotherapy. Nature 504, 7480 (December 2013), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jeffrey L. Bada and Antonio Lazcano. 2002. Origin of life. Some like it hot, but not the first biomolecules. Science 296, 5575 (June 2002), 1982–1983.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andres F. Sarrazin, Andrew D. Peel, and Michalis Averof. 2012. A segmentation clock with two-segment periodicity in insects. Science 336, 6079 (April 2012), 338–341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang Bai, Xi Han, Xiu-Cheng Zheng, and Lijie Qiao. 2013. Both high reliability and giant electrocaloric strength in BaTiO₃ ceramics. Sci. Rep. 3, (October 2013), 2895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hwaiyu Geng. 2014. Data Center Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Suvranu De, Wonmuk Hwang, and Ellen Kuhl (Eds.). 2015. Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Richard S. Krannich, A. E. Luloff, and Donald R. Field. 2011. A New and Different People: Sociodemographic Changes in Southwest Utah. In People, Places and Landscapes: Social Change in High Amenity Rural Areas, A. E. Luloff and Donald R. Field (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2016. Ghost Ship Washes Up On Liberian Coast With Crew Missing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Aviation Safety: New Airlines Illustrate Long-Standing Problems in FAA’s Inspection Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard Lee Atwill. 2015. Evaluation of water and nitrogen management practices in southern US rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Mary M. Chapman. 2012. Uncomfortable Accounting. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst.
ISSN (print)2160-6455
ISSN (online)2160-6463
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles