How to format your references using the Cancer and Metastasis Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crouch, T. (2013). Harold Melvin Agnew (1921-2013). Nature, 503(7474), 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Larson, H. J., & Ghinai, I. (2011). Lessons from polio eradication. Nature, 473(7348), 446–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill, D. L., Spassova, M. A., & Soboloff, J. (2006). Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5784), 183–184.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ballentine, C. J., Marty, B., Sherwood Lollar, B., & Cassidy, M. (2005). Neon isotopes constrain convection and volatile origin in the Earth’s mantle. Nature, 433(7021), 33–38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mesterton-Gibbons, M. (2007). A Concrete Approach to Mathematical Modelling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hirao, T. (Ed.). (2015). Functionalized Redox Systems: Synthetic Reactions and Design of π- and Bio-Conjugates. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Buscemi, M. G., Montanari, U., & Taneja, S. (2010). Toward a Game-Theoretic Model of Grid Systems. In M. Wirsing, M. Hofmann, & A. Rauschmayer (Eds.), Trustworthly Global Computing: 5th International Symposium, TGC 2010, Munich, Germany, February 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 57–72). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, July 15). Why Does Ouzo Turn Cloudy When You Add Water? IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Questions Remain on the Costs, Uses, and Risks of the Redesigned Space Station (No. T-NSIAD-91-26). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, H. (2008). Linkages Between Career Development and Career Technical Education Outcomes Among High Schools in New Jersey (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, April 28). Who’s That Knocking on the Door? New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer and Metastasis Reviews
AbbreviationCancer Metastasis Rev.
ISSN (print)0167-7659
ISSN (online)1573-7233
ScopeCancer Research

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