How to format your references using the Cancer and Metastasis Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2000). European space panel picks new priorities. Nature, 407(6802), 277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoefel, F., & Elgar, S. (2003). Wave-induced sediment transport and sandbar migration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5614), 1885–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Millonig, J. H., Millen, K. J., & Hatten, M. E. (2000). The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature, 403(6771), 764–769.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Warne, T., Serrano-Vega, M. J., Baker, J. G., Moukhametzianov, R., Edwards, P. C., Henderson, R., … Schertler, G. F. X. (2008). Structure of a beta1-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature, 454(7203), 486–491.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heitz, E., & Kreysa, G. (2005). Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
MacDonald, M. (2009). Pro ASP.NET 3.5 in C# 2008: Includes Silverlight 2. (M. Szpuszta, Ed.) (Third Edition.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, N., & Li, Z. (2012). Graphene Oxide: Theoretical Perspectives. In J. Zeng, R.-Q. Zhang, & H. R. Treutlein (Eds.), Quantum Simulations of Materials and Biological Systems (pp. 69–84). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 26). Mutilated Toucan Receives 3D-Printed Beak. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Proposed Regulation Prescribing New “Fixed-Price Options” " Provisions for Use in Automatic Data Processing Systems Procurement (No. B-186313,B-188658). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B. (2015). RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, October 18). Deep Into the Wild With Jane Goodall. New York Times, p. C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer and Metastasis Reviews
AbbreviationCancer Metastasis Rev.
ISSN (print)0167-7659
ISSN (online)1573-7233
ScopeCancer Research

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