How to format your references using the Cancer and Metastasis Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Midgley, M. (2001). Being objective. Nature, 410(6830), 753.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowman, A. F., & Tonkin, C. J. (2011). Microbiology. A tail of division. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 409–410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ebel, C., Mariconti, L., & Gruissem, W. (2004). Plant retinoblastoma homologues control nuclear proliferation in the female gametophyte. Nature, 429(6993), 776–780.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Soloviev, A. V., Lukas, R., Donelan, M. A., Haus, B. K., & Ginis, I. (2014). The air-sea interface and surface stress under tropical cyclones. Scientific reports, 4, 5306.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Juhnke, G. A., Granello, D. H., & Granello, P. F. (2010). Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rajendram, R., Preedy, V. R., & Patel, V. B. (Eds.). (2015). Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barsky, S. H., & Robertson, F. M. (2012). Pathology: Histomorphometrical Features of IBC – Angiogenesis, Lymphangiogenesis, and Tumor Emboli. In N. T. Ueno & M. Cristofanilli (Eds.), Inflammatory Breast Cancer: An Update (pp. 27–51). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 26). The Bionic Man is No Longer Science Fiction. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Mass Transit: Preliminary Views on Options for Additional Fiscal Oversight of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (No. GAO-05-922T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, H. (2010). Was sagte dieser Schiller (damals)? Schillers Antworten auf seine Kritiker nach 1945 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, November 29). Welcoming Back N.B.A. With Open Yawns. New York Times, p. B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer and Metastasis Reviews
AbbreviationCancer Metastasis Rev.
ISSN (print)0167-7659
ISSN (online)1573-7233
ScopeCancer Research

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