How to format your references using the Cancer and Metastasis Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coward, F. (2008). Archaeology. Standing on the shoulders of giants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1493–1495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farina, S. C., & Summers, A. P. (2015). Biomechanics: Boxed up and ready to go. Nature, 517(7534), 274–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitaker, R. J., Grogan, D. W., & Taylor, J. W. (2003). Geographic barriers isolate endemic populations of hyperthermophilic archaea. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 976–978.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J. W., & Hone, J. (2008). Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 385–388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neupert, R. (2011). French Animation History. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Gavrilova, M. L., & Tan, C. J. K. (Eds.). (2016). Transactions on Computational Science XXVII (Vol. 9570). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sadiki, A., Ahmadi, W., & Chrigui, M. (2011). Toward the Impact of Fuel Evaporation-Combustion Interaction on Spray Combustion in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers. Part II: Influence of High Combustion Temperature on Spray Droplet Evaporation. In B. Merci, D. Roekaerts, & A. Sadiki (Eds.), Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Diluted Spray Turbulent Combustion: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion (pp. 111–132). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer and Metastasis Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 1). Connecting Animals To The Cloud Could Help Predict Earthquakes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Human Resources and Payroll Systems Requirements (No. JFMIP-SR-99-5). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, R. (2013). Growth and development of greenhouse vegetable seedlings under supplemental LED lighting (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles, F., & Stewart, N. (2015, July 17). A Church Shooting Defendant With ‘a Darkness to His Life.’ New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer and Metastasis Reviews
AbbreviationCancer Metastasis Rev.
ISSN (print)0167-7659
ISSN (online)1573-7233
ScopeCancer Research

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