How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradley Cardinale. 2012. Ecology. Impacts of biodiversity loss. Science 336, 6081 (May 2012), 552–553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yosef Grodzinsky and Israel Nelken. 2014. Neuroscience. The neural code that makes us human. Science 343, 6174 (February 2014), 978–979.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. R. E. Sinclair, Simon Mduma, and Justin S. Brashares. 2003. Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system. Nature 425, 6955 (September 2003), 288–290.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nerilie J. Abram, Michael K. Gagan, Zhengyu Liu, Wahyoe S. Hantoro, Malcolm T. McCulloch, and Bambang W. Suwargadi. 2007. Seasonal characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the Holocene epoch. Nature 445, 7125 (January 2007), 299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Juan-Manuel Torres-Moreno. 2014. Automatic Text Summarization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Paul De Vos, George M. Garrity, Dorothy Jones, Noel R. Krieg, Wolfgang Ludwig, Fred A. Rainey, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, and William B. Whitman (Eds.). 2009. Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Three The Firmicutes (Second Edition ed.). Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sang Hee Kim, Youngsong Mun, and Hyung Il Choi. 2008. Improved Curvature Scale Space Based on Image Retrieval Using Dynamic Time Warping. In Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2008: International Conference, Perugia, Italy, June 30– July 3, 2008, Proceedings, Part II, Osvaldo Gervasi, Beniamino Murgante, Antonio Laganà, David Taniar, Youngsong Mun and Marina L. Gavrilova (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 32–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2016. Millions Of Penguins Are About To Be Smothered By A Volcanic Eruption. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Telecommunications: FCC’s Performance Management Weaknesses Could Jeopardize Proposed Reforms of the Rural Health Care Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emily Anderson. 2017. Predicting Home Purchase Location in DC: An Intersectional Approach. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James L. Kelly. 1972. Preserving Our Relevance. New York Times, SPORTS14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Des. Automat. Electron. Syst.
ISSN (print)1084-4309
ISSN (online)1557-7309

Other styles