How to format your references using the IEEE Electron Device Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Electron Device Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “Bricks and mortar. Scandinavia’s material gains,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6994, p. 906, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Rakoff-Nahoum and L. E. Comstock, “Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota,” Nature, vol. 514, no. 7524, pp. 576–577, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Winkler, A. Nahvi, and R. R. Breaker, “Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6910, pp. 952–956, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. D. Niswender, G. J. Morton, W. H. Stearns, C. J. Rhodes, M. G. Myers Jr, and M. W. Schwartz, “Intracellular signalling. Key enzyme in leptin-induced anorexia,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6858, pp. 794–795, Oct. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Kato, C. A. Handwerker, and J. Bath, Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
J. Cousteix, Asymptotic Analysis and Boundary Layers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J. D. Smith, J. J. Couchman, and M. J. Beran, “The Highs and Lows of Theoretical Interpretation in Animal-Metacognition Research,” in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition, S. M. Fleming and C. D. Frith, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, pp. 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Electron Device Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Mass Grave In Germany Reveals The Bloody Death Of 47 Soldiers,” IFLScience, Jun. 05, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Automated Systems Security--Federal Agencies Should Strengthen Safeguards Over Personal and Other Sensitive Data,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, LCD-78-123, Jan. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Wolff, “PRIDE: A psycho-educational peer support group for LGBTIQ youth: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Football Culture Keeps Some In the Dark,” New York Times, p. B11, Jan. 05, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Electron Device Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Electron Device Lett.
ISSN (print)0741-3106
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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