How to format your references using the IEEE Electron Device Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Electron Device Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Moncada, “Obituary: John R. Vane (1927-2004),” Nature, vol. 433, no. 7021, p. 28, Jan. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. E. Feldman and M. Brecht, “Map plasticity in somatosensory cortex,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5749, pp. 810–815, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Sinervo, E. Svensson, and T. Comendant, “Density cycles and an offspring quantity and quality game driven by natural selection,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6799, pp. 985–988, Aug. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Ding, K. Dai, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, and R. J. Zeng, “Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5268, Jun. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. K. Datta, Seismic Analysis of Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
A. Tosti, P. E. Grimes, and M. P. De Padova, Eds., Color Atlas of Chemical Peels, 2nd ed. 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. D. Alotaibi and J. J. Schoenau, “Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments,” in Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health, E. Lichtfouse, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 67–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Electron Device Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Concrete Jungle: Cities Adapt to Growing Ranks of Coyotes, Cougars and Other Urban Wildlife,” IFLScience, Jul. 01, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “President’s Eighth Special Message for Fiscal Year 1981,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, OGC-81-9, May 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. N. Kolb, “What’s professional development got to do with it? The value of lesson study in implementing the common core standards for mathematical practices,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. A. Harris and K. Q. Seelye, “Choate Rosemary Hall, a Very Private School, Publicly Catalogs Its Sins,” New York Times, p. A16, Apr. 15, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Electron Device Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Electron Device Lett.
ISSN (print)0741-3106
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Other styles