How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computation Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Mervis. 2000. 2001 BUDGET: Spending Bills Show No Sign of Surplus--Yet. Science 289, 5476 (July 2000), 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bao-Cang Ren and Fu-Guo Deng. 2014. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots. Sci. Rep. 4, (April 2014), 4623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waverly W. Ding, Fiona Murray, and Toby E. Stuart. 2006. Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science 313, 5787 (August 2006), 665–667.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andrew S. Yoo, Brett T. Staahl, Lei Chen, and Gerald R. Crabtree. 2009. MicroRNA-mediated switching of chromatin-remodelling complexes in neural development. Nature 460, 7255 (July 2009), 642–646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Patrick W. Corrigan, David Roe, and Hector W. H. Tsang. 2011. Challenging the Stigma of Mental Illness. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Serap Kurbanoğlu, Umut Al, Phyllis Lepon Erdoğan, Yaşar Tonta, and Nazan Uçak (Eds.). 2012. E-Science and Information Management: Third International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2012, Ankara, Turkey, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Christian Leuprecht and Kenneth Hall. 2014. Why Terror Networks are Dissimilar: How Structure Relates to Function. In Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security, Anthony J. Masys (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 83–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory.

Blog post
Josh Davis. 2016. Wet Weather May Genuinely Make Chronic Pain Worse. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Space Acquisitions: Assessment of Overhead Persistent Infrared Technology Report. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kathleen L. Frisbee. 2015. The impact of mobile health (mhealth) technology on family caregiver’s burden levels and an assessment of variations in mhealth tool use. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael D. Shear, Helene Cooper, and Eric Schmitt. 2017. White House Claims Syria Is Preparing Poison Attack. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computation Theory
ISSN (print)1942-3454
ISSN (online)1942-3462

Other styles