How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computation Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwann Michel-Kerjan. 2015. We must build resilience into our communities. Nature 524, 7566 (August 2015), 389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ilana Goldhaber-Gordon and David Goldhaber-Gordon. 2005. Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 6. Nature 433, 7028 (February 2005), 805.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ross A. Alford, Kay S. Bradfield, and Stephen J. Richards. 2007. Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447, 7144 (May 2007), E3-4; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naoya Sakamoto, Yusuke Seto, Shoichi Itoh, Kiyoshi Kuramoto, Kiyoshi Fujino, Kazuhide Nagashima, Alexander N. Krot, and Hisayoshi Yurimoto. 2007. Remnants of the early solar system water enriched in heavy oxygen isotopes. Science 317, 5835 (July 2007), 231–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miikka Poikselkä, Georg Mayer, Hisham Khartabil, and Aki Niemi. 2004. The IMS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Núria Ferran Ferrer and Julià Minguillón Alfonso (Eds.). 2011. Content Management for E-Learning. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Elizabeth M. Dolan, Jean W. Bauer, and Mary Jo Katras. 2011. Making Rural Employment Work. In Rural Families and Work: Context and Problems, Jean W. Bauer and Elizabeth M. Dolan (eds.). Springer, New York, NY, 55–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2014. How To Find A Binary System’s Habitable Zone. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Improved Stategic and Acquisition Planning Can Help Address Emerging Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jay L. Michaels. 2009. Changing cooperation to competition disrupts attitudes and valence: First test of a dynamical model. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Hodgman. 2017. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgeman. New York Times, MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computation Theory
ISSN (print)1942-3454
ISSN (online)1942-3462

Other styles