How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computation Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Philippe Piot. 2015. Particle physics: Positrons ride the wave. Nature 524, 7566 (August 2015), 422–423.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. R. Philpotts and L. D. Dickson. 2000. The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma. Nature 406, 6791 (July 2000), 59–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suo Bai, Qi Xu, and Yong Qin. 2013. Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 1851.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hyung-Jin Choi, Jin-Seok Choi, Byeong-Ju Park, Ji-Ho Eom, So-Young Heo, Min-Wook Jung, Ki-Seok An, and Soon-Gil Yoon. 2014. Enhanced transparency, mechanical durability, and antibacterial activity of zinc nanoparticles on glass substrate. Sci. Rep. 4, (September 2014), 6271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicola Cooper, Kirsty Forrest, and Paul Cramp. 2008. Essential Guide to Acute Care. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Tomas Brezina and Ryszard Jablonski (Eds.). 2010. Recent Advances in Mechatronics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
R. L. Michel. 2005. Tritium in the Hydrologic Cycle. In Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, Pradeep K. Aggarwal, Joel R. Gat and Klaus F. O. Froehlich (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2017. Canadians With Cystic Fibrosis Live 10 Years Longer Than Their American Counterparts. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Federal Vehicle Fleets: Leading Practices for Managing Fleet Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jeffery J. Turney. 2014. Police supervisory attributes that influence attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management programs. Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tatiana Schlossberg and Hiroko Tabuchi. 2017. Settlements for Company Sins Can No Longer Aid Other Projects. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computation Theory
ISSN (print)1942-3454
ISSN (online)1942-3462

Other styles