How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Computation Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory (TOCT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Knight. 2001. Study says authors are averse to declaring conflicts of interest. Nature 411, 6833 (May 2001), 3–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ben Bond-Lamberty and Allison Thomson. 2010. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record. Nature 464, 7288 (March 2010), 579–582.
A journal article with 3 authors
So-Jung Park, T. Andrew Taton, and Chad A. Mirkin. 2002. Array-based electrical detection of DNA with nanoparticle probes. Science 295, 5559 (February 2002), 1503–1506.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hendrik Poinar, Stuart Fiedel, Christine E. King, Alison M. Devault, Kirsti Bos, Melanie Kuch, and Regis Debruyne. 2009. Comment on “DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America.” Science 325, 5937 (July 2009), 148; author reply 148.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Enrique Castillo, Angel Cobo, Francisco Jubete, and Rosa Eva Pruneda. 1999. Orthogonal Sets and Polar Methods in Linear Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Svetlozar T. Rachev. 2013. The Methods of Distances in the Theory of Probability and Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Russell Boulding. 2016. The Family as a Way Into the Future (1978). In Elise Boulding: Writings on Feminism, the Family and Quakerism, J. Russell Boulding (ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Computation Theory.

Blog post
Janet Fang. 2015. DNA From Ice Age “Llama on Steroids” Fossil Rewrites Camel History. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Research Evidence Concerning Bilingual Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guadalupe Barrios. 2012. Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Julie Bosman and Amy Harmon. 2017. Love of Music Drew Victims To a Fatal Trap. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Computation Theory
ISSN (print)1942-3454
ISSN (online)1942-3462

Other styles