How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Don Prosnitz. 2005. Science and law. WMD sensors--search and seizure. Science 310, 5750 (November 2005), 978.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ephrat Levy-Lahad and Sharon E. Plon. 2003. Cancer. A risky business--assessing breast cancer risk. Science 302, 5645 (October 2003), 574–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vigdis Torsvik, Lise Øvreås, and Tron Frede Thingstad. 2002. Prokaryotic diversity--magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors. Science 296, 5570 (May 2002), 1064–1066.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. O. Wilke, J. L. Wang, C. Ofria, R. E. Lenski, and C. Adami. 2001. Evolution of digital organisms at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. Nature 412, 6844 (July 2001), 331–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robert B. Heimann and Hans D. Lehmann. 2015. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Tiziana Margaria and Bernhard Steffen (Eds.). 2016. Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation: Foundational Techniques: 7th International Symposium, ISoLA 2016, Imperial, Corfu, Greece, October 10–14, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wei Fu, Nong Xiao, and Xicheng Lu. 2007. QoS-Guaranteed Ring Replication Management with Strong Consistency. In Advances in Web and Network Technologies, and Information Management: APWeb/WAIM 2007 International Workshops: DBMAN 2007, WebETrends 2007, PAIS 2007 and ASWAN 2007, Huang Shan, China, June 16-18, 2007. Proceedings, Kevin Chen-Chuan Chang, Wei Wang, Lei Chen, Clarence A. Ellis, Ching-Hsien Hsu, Ah Chung Tsoi and Haixun Wang (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. Rewilding Isn’t About Nostalgia – Exciting New Worlds Are Possible. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. FCC: Redesignating and Reallocating Frequency Bands and Establishing Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and Fixed Satellite Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Courtney Mersch. 2012. Campus-based drunk-driving intervention program: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly Whiteside. 2015. Same High Ideals, All New Challenges. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
ISSN (print)1544-3566
ISSN (online)1544-3973
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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