How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
David Baulcombe. 2004. RNA silencing in plants. Nature 431, 7006 (September 2004), 356–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Naotaka Fujii and Ann M. Graybiel. 2003. Representation of action sequence boundaries by macaque prefrontal cortical neurons. Science 301, 5637 (August 2003), 1246–1249.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matthias Meschke, Wiebke Guichard, and Jukka P. Pekola. 2006. Single-mode heat conduction by photons. Nature 444, 7116 (November 2006), 187–190.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. J. Howells, D. Abrego, G. O. Vaughan, and J. A. Burt. 2014. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean. Sci. Rep. 4, (December 2014), 7484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weikai Yan. 2014. Crop Variety Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Eckehard Fozzy Moritz and Steve Haake (Eds.). 2006. The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 3: Developments for Innovation. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Fernando Arroyo, Juan Castellanos, and Victor Mitrana. 2012. Uniform Distributed Pushdown Automata Systems. In Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems: 14th International Workshop, DCFS 2012, Braga, Portugal, July 23-25, 2012. Proceedings, Martin Kutrib, Nelma Moreira and Rogério Reis (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 64–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2015. How Shrimp Farming Wreaked Havoc On Sri Lanka’s Coasts. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Space Transportation: Challenges Facing NASA’s Space Launch Initiative. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anne-Claire Fisher. 2009. Exceptionality and parent -professional conflict: Causes, prevention and resolution. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ben Sisario. 2017. Bob Dylan’s Next Act: An Album of Standards. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
ISSN (print)1544-3566
ISSN (online)1544-3973
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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