How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leslie Sage. 2014. Exoplanets. Nature 513, 7518 (September 2014), 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
John R. S. Newman and Amy E. Keating. 2003. Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays. Science 300, 5628 (June 2003), 2097–2101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deborah K. Smith, Johnson R. Cann, and Javier Escartín. 2006. Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 442, 7101 (July 2006), 440–443.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. A. De Leo, L. Rizzi, A. Caizzi, and M. Gatto. 2001. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol. Nature 413, 6855 (October 2001), 478–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
David M. Bliesner. 2006. Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dongsheng Ma. 2013. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
William Aspray, George Royer, and Melissa G. Ocepek. 2014. American School Lunch Policy: A History. In Formal and Informal Approaches to Food Policy, George Royer and Melissa G. Ocepek (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 61–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization.

Blog post
Alfredo Carpineti. 2016. Neutron Star Collisions May Explain Origin Of Heavy Elements Like Gold. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Status Report on Executive Branch Implementation of the National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sara S. Zolfaghari. 2015. The relationship between folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 intakes and depression in women who use hormonal oral contraceptives. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Herrman and Mike Isaac. 2016. Counting Views Is Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
ISSN (print)1544-3566
ISSN (online)1544-3973
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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