How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neil Savage. 2011. Early detection: Spotting the first signs. Nature 471, 7339 (March 2011), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Igor Žutić and Jeongsu Lee. 2012. Applied physics. Spin twists in a transistor. Science 337, 6092 (July 2012), 307–308.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wenxue Chen, Shulian Zhang, and Xingwu Long. 2013. Polarisation control through an optical feedback technique and its application in precise measurements. Sci. Rep. 3, (2013), 1992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Heine, G. DeSantis, J. G. Luz, M. Mitchell, C. H. Wong, and I. A. Wilson. 2001. Observation of covalent intermediates in an enzyme mechanism at atomic resolution. Science 294, 5541 (October 2001), 369–374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garth O. Bruen. 2015. WHOIS Running the Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adil Bagirov. 2014. Introduction to Nonsmooth Optimization: Theory, Practice and Software. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Moira C. Norrie. 2011. Desktop, Tabletop or Mobile? In Search Computing: Trends and Developments, Stefano Ceri and Marco Brambilla (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 46–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization.

Blog post
Stephen Luntz. 2016. Reports Of An Earth-like Planet Around Our Nearest Neighbor. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Efforts to Identify and Follow Up with High-risk Carriers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Qasim Al azze. 2014. Field-Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on DSP Controller. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda F. Burghardt. 2006. The Legacies They Left. New York Times, 14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
ISSN (print)1544-3566
ISSN (online)1544-3973
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles