How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization (TACO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul Smaglik. 2004. The best years of our lives. Nature 430, 6995 (July 2004), 121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zongping Shao and Sossina M. Haile. 2004. A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells. Nature 431, 7005 (September 2004), 170–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Misha Angrist, and Robert Cook-Deegan. 2006. Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science 314, 5796 (October 2006), 62–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Richard S. Sandstrom, Michael R. Foret, Douglas A. Grow, Eric Haugen, Christopher T. Rhodes, Astrid E. Cardona, Clyde F. Phelix, Yufeng Wang, Mitchel S. Berger, and Chin-Hsing Annie Lin. 2014. Epigenetic regulation by chromatin activation mark H3K4me3 in primate progenitor cells within adult neurogenic niche. Sci. Rep. 4, (June 2014), 5371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Justus Hofmeyr, James P. Neilson, Zarko Alfirevic, Caroline A. Crowther, A. Metin Gülmezoglu, Ellen D. Hodnett, Gillian M. L. Gyte, and Lelia Duley. 2008. A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jian-Ying Wang and Robert A. Casero (Eds.). 2006. Polyamine Cell Signaling: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Cancer Research. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Marvin Ester, Julia Friederike Göhner, and Jan Tilmes. 2016. Man the Irrational Animal? In Ernest Sosa: Targeting His Philosophy, Amrei Bahr and Markus Seidel (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization.

Blog post
Robin Andrews. 2017. Scientists Forced To Write Studies To Refute Scott Pruitt’s Climate Denial Bullshit. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Digital Television Transition: Increased Federal Planning and Risk Management Could Further Facilitate the DTV Transition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Derek W. Rich. 2009. Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
John Williams. 2017. August Wilson Has a Biographer. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
ISSN (print)1544-3566
ISSN (online)1544-3973
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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