How to format your references using the Achievements in the Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Achievements in the Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2000. Budget crisis forces hard choices on US high-energy physics. Nature 404, 909–910.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, J., Bradford, M., 2010. 2009 Visualization Challenge. Science 327, 945–955.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarlinton, R.E., Meers, J., Young, P.R., 2006. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 442, 79–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Im, K.-S., Cheong, S.-K., Powell, C.F., Lai, M.-C.D., Wang, J., 2013. Unraveling the geometry dependence of in-nozzle cavitation in high-pressure injectors. Sci. Rep. 3, 2067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton, G., 2014. Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rowiński, P. (Ed.), 2013. Experimental and Computational Solutions of Hydraulic Problems: 32nd International School of Hydraulics, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Z., Ye, Q., Law, R., Li, Y., 2009. Automatic Detection of Subjective Sentences Based on Chinese Subjective Patterns, in: Shi, Y., Wang, S., Peng, Y., Li, J., Zeng, Y. (Eds.), Cutting-Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making: 20th International Conference, MCDM 2009, Chengdu/Jiuzhaigou, China, June 21-26, 2009. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Achievements in the Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Spectacular GoPro Footage Of Polar Bears Searching For Ice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Pipeline Safety: Use of Instrumented Technology to Inspect Pipelines (No. T-RCED-93-41). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer, C.D., 2013. School Referenda and Ohio Department of Education Typologies: An Investigation of the Outcomes of First Attempt School Operating Levies from 2002–2010 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. On Chinatown’s Basketball Courts, It’s the Year of Yao. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Nesbit and Bradford, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit and Bradford, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Im et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAchievements in the Life Sciences
ISSN (print)2078-1520

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