How to format your references using the Achievements in the Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Achievements in the Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis, W., 2000. At the zoo. Nature 408, 295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides, W., Oppenheimer, M., 2007. Climate change. Carbon trading over taxes. Science 315, 1670.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koschowitz, M.-C., Fischer, C., Sander, M., 2014. Evolution. Beyond the rainbow. Science 346, 416–418.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, D.M., Lopez, L.I., Lin, R.P., Barrington-Leigh, C.P., 2005. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes observed up to 20 MeV. Science 307, 1085–1088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair, R., Regenstein, J.M., 2015. Genetic Modification and Food Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jaramillo, D., 2014. Virtualization Techniques for Mobile Systems, Multimedia Systems and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nipkow, T., Klein, G., 2014. Isar: a Language for Structured Proofs, in: Klein, G. (Ed.), Concrete Semantics: With Isabelle/HOL. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Achievements in the Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Study Finds Gamers Have Greater Cognitive Function And More Grey Matter [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Student Loans: Limited Information Is Available to Determine How Students’ College Debt Affects Their School and Lifestyle Decisions (No. HEHS-98-97R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimazoe, J., 2012. The power of forgotten opinions: Why an organization chooses inaction over the public’s safety (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices Consider a Loss in a 401(k) Plan. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chameides and Oppenheimer, 2007; Ellis, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chameides and Oppenheimer, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAchievements in the Life Sciences
ISSN (print)2078-1520

Other styles