How to format your references using the AAPS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AAPS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kun H (2015) Evaluation: Moving away from metrics. Nature 520:S18-20
A journal article with 2 authors
Kenyon SJ, Bromley BC (2004) Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits. Nature 432:598–602
A journal article with 3 authors
De’ath G, Lough JM, Fabricius KE (2009) Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323:116–119
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Milner JJ, Toma C, Yu B, et al (2017) Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours. Nature 552:253–257

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu E (2011) Design of Buildings for Wind. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Horst RK (ed) (2008) Westcott’s Plant Disease Handbook, Seventh Edition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee A, Sur B (2014) Modeling Combinational Logic Circuits, Implicit Events, Primitive Communication Channels and Combinations. In: Sur B (ed) SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 2.3, 2.2 and SystemC-AMS 1.0. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AAPS Open.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) The First Trial Results of Artificial Blood Use Are Encouraging. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Detroit City Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim S-C (2008) Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch GA (2012) 60 Years Ago, An Olympic Trifecta Of Endurance. New York Times SP11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kun 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kenyon and Bromley 2004; Kun 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kenyon and Bromley 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Milner et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleAAPS Open
AbbreviationAAPS Open
ISSN (online)2364-9534

Other styles