How to format your references using the AAPS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AAPS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechti KM (2015) Materials science. Understanding friction in layered materials. Science 348:632–633
A journal article with 2 authors
Maherali H, Klironomos JN (2007) Influence of phylogeny on fungal community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Science 316:1746–1748
A journal article with 3 authors
Cordier P, Amodeo J, Carrez P (2012) Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth’s mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates. Nature 481:177–180
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu C, Ma Z, Xu S, et al (2014) Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen. Sci Rep 4:5564

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Etten WC (2006) Introduction to Random Signals and Noise. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Franco-Paredes C, Santos-Preciado JI (eds) (2015) Neglected Tropical Diseases - Latin America and the Caribbean. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
McCaffrey M (2016) Siblings of Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disability. In: Rubin IL, Merrick J, Greydanus DE, Patel DR (eds) Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AAPS Open.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Here’s Something You’ve Never Experienced If You’re Under The Age Of 40. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Expenditures for Consulting Services Under Two Federally Funded Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Restrepo E (2009) Eventalizing blackness in Colombia. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2000) Selling Tea as Serenity, Not Snobbery. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liechti 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Maherali and Klironomos 2007; Liechti 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maherali and Klironomos 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAAPS Open
AbbreviationAAPS Open
ISSN (online)2364-9534

Other styles