How to format your references using the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lawrence PA. The politics of publication. Nature. 2003;422:259–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Otterstrom JJ, van Oijen AM. Biochemistry. Nudging through a nucleosome. Science. 2009;325:547–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khush RS, Leulier F, Lemaitre B. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science. 2002;296:273–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sánchez-Román M, Fernández-Remolar D, Amils R, Sánchez-Navas A, Schmid T, San Martin-Uriz P, et al. Microbial mediated formation of Fe-carbonate minerals under extreme acidic conditions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shore SN. The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Grosu A-L, Nieder C, editors. Target Volume Definition in Radiation Oncology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Coscia P, Palmieri FAN, Castaldo F, Cavallo A. 3-D Hand Pose Estimation from Kinect’s Point Cloud Using Appearance Matching. In: Bassis S, Esposito A, Morabito FC, Pasero E, editors. Advances in Neural Networks: Computational Intelligence for ICT. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Seawater Can Reach Right To The Edge Of The Earth’s Core. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. H.R. 7178, the Research and Development Authorization Estimates Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Jun. Report No.: 112490.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Davis LV. Oxidation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Iron Phthalocyanine Thin Films [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Ruiz RR, Rothenberg B. Exceptions for Drugs Fall Under Scrutiny. New York Times. 2016 Sep 15;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Neuroeng. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)1743-0003
ScopeHealth Informatics

Other styles