How to format your references using the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mascola JR. HIV. The modern era of HIV-1 vaccine development. Science. 2015;349:139–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Seeley RJ, Sandoval DA. Neuroscience: weight loss through smoking. Nature. 2011;475:176–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kalas P, Graham JR, Clampin M. A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut’s dust belt. Nature. 2005;435:1067–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Abraham ER, Law CS, Boyd PW, Lavender SJ, Maldonado MT, Bowie AR. Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom. Nature. 2000;407:727–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dubin D. Numerical and Analytical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, Using Mathematica. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Neyret P, Demey G, editors. Surgery of the Knee. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Xie H, Onal C, Régnier S, Sitti M. Nanomechanics of AFM Based Nanomanipulation. In: Onal C, Régnier S, Sitti M, editors. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Nanorobotics: Modelling, Simulation, Setup Building and Experiments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 87–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. A Brief History Of Everything, With Neil deGrasse Tyson [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Slow Progress, Uncertain Future Threaten FAA Program To Measure Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-IMTEC-92-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brenner DS. The Phonetics of Mandarin Tones in Conversation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. All Aboard an ‘Alien Starship.’ New York Times. 2017 Jan 9;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
AbbreviationJ. Neuroeng. Rehabil.
ISSN (online)1743-0003
ScopeHealth Informatics

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