How to format your references using the 3D-Printed Materials and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D (2004) Introductory matters. Nature 429:584
A journal article with 2 authors
von Messling V, Cattaneo R (2012) Virology. A henipavirus vaccine in sight. Science 337:651–652
A journal article with 3 authors
Corominas-Murtra B, Fortuny J, Solé RV (2014) Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication. Sci Rep 4:4587
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wood JN, Glynn DD, Phillips BC, Hauser MD (2007) The perception of rational, goal-directed action in nonhuman primates. Science 317:1402–1405

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Deventer DR, Imai K, Mesler M (2013) Advanced Financial Risk Management, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., Solaris South Tower, Singapore
An edited book
Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, et al (2016) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Krone F (2009) Venture Creation in Watchmaking: Where Innovation has Tradition. In: Matthaei EE (ed) Strategies for Innovators: HHL Open School Case Book. Gabler, Wiesbaden, pp 21–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Molecule That Mimics Exercise Could Help Treat Obesity and Diabetes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Air Traffic Control: FAA Reports Progress in System Acquisitions, but Changes in Performance Measurement Could Improve Usefulness of Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felder Derkacs AD (2010) The role of desmin in the signaling response to mechanical stretch of skeletal muscle. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2012) Russians See Church and State Come Closer. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D-Printed Materials and Systems
ISSN (online)2363-8389

Other styles