How to format your references using the 3D-Printed Materials and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linnarsson S (2015) NEUROSCIENCE. A tree of the human brain. Science 350:37
A journal article with 2 authors
Steiner L, Ploegh H (2014) Herman Eisen (1918-2014). Nature 516:38
A journal article with 3 authors
Hÿtch MJ, Putaux J-L, Pénisson J-M (2003) Measurement of the displacement field of dislocations to 0.03 A by electron microscopy. Nature 423:270–273
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yamashiro C, Sasaki K, Yabuta Y, et al (2018) Generation of human oogonia from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Science 362:356–360

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kriegel J (2016) Unfairly Labeled. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dastani M, Hübner JF, Logan B (2013) Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 10th International Workshop, ProMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Biggs BG, Kiker MK (2007) ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN HARBORS AND COASTAL AREAS. In: Linkov I, Kiker GA, Wenning RJ (eds) Environmental Security in Harbors and Coastal Areas: Management Using Comparative Risk Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) How ‘Cannibalism’ By Breast Cancer Cells Promotes Dormancy: A Possible Clue Into Cancer Recurrence. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Continued Coordination, Operational Data, and Performance Standards Needed to Guide Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson EB (2014) Bahamian Quaternary geology and the global carbon budget. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B, Schonbrun Z (2017) Northwestern Makes Its Debut a Winning One. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D-Printed Materials and Systems
ISSN (online)2363-8389

Other styles