How to format your references using the 3D-Printed Materials and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steinhardt P (2014) Big Bang blunder bursts the multiverse bubble. Nature 510:9
A journal article with 2 authors
Festing MF, Fisher EM (2000) Mighty mice. Nature 404:815
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield CW, Cziko A-M, Robinson GE (2003) Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302:296–299
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Goodman AA, Rosolowsky EW, Borkin MA, et al (2009) A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation. Nature 457:63–66

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hewitt A (2016) Construction Claims & Responses. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gavrilovska L, Krco S, Milutinovic V, et al (2011) Application and Multidisciplinary Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks: Concepts, Integration, and Case Studies. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Nagurney A, Yu M, Floden J (2015) Fashion Supply Chain Network Competition with Ecolabeling. In: Choi T-M, Cheng TCE (eds) Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain Management: From Sourcing to Retailing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Human Language Gene Helps Mice Learn Tasks. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) How Funds Granted to the Eisenhower College and the Rayburn Library Were Spent. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White BD (2015) Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support at the High School Level. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J (2017) In Brooklyn, a Hunt For the Perfect Fit. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D-Printed Materials and Systems
ISSN (online)2363-8389

Other styles