How to format your references using the 3D-Printed Materials and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible B (2014) Climate policy. IPCC lessons from Berlin. Science 345:34
A journal article with 2 authors
Kunz W, Kellermeier M (2009) Materials science. Beyond biomineralization. Science 323:344–345
A journal article with 3 authors
Hansen SB, Tao X, MacKinnon R (2011) Structural basis of PIP2 activation of the classical inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2. Nature 477:495–498
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Turnipseed M, Crowder LB, Sagarin RD, Roady SE (2009) Oceans. Legal bedrock for rebuilding America’s ocean ecosystems. Science 324:183–184

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
PKF International Ltd (2017) Wiley IFRS 2017 Interpretation and Application of IFRS Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Burt S, Añorve DA (2016) Global Perspectives on US Democratization Efforts: From the Outside In. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Consani C, Marcolli M (2006) Archimedean cohomology revisited. In: Consani C, Marcolli M (eds) Noncommutative Geometry and Number Theory: Where Arithmetic meets Geometry and Physics. Vieweg, Wiesbaden, pp 109–140

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3D-Printed Materials and Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) The Five Most Common Reasons For Airliner Disasters. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Social Security Administration: Effective Planning and Management Practices Are Key to Overcoming IT Modernization Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wistrom CA (2017) Perceptions of School Leaders Regarding the Benefits of Leadership Dashboards. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Large Funds Are Dropping Investments in Fossil Fuels. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal title3D-Printed Materials and Systems
ISSN (online)2363-8389

Other styles