How to format your references using the GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wingreen, N.S.: Physics. Quantum many-body effects in a single-electron transistor. Science. 304, 1258–1259 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Flames, N., Hobert, O.: Gene regulatory logic of dopamine neuron differentiation. Nature. 458, 885–889 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bánsági, T., Jr, Vanag, V.K., Epstein, I.R.: Tomography of reaction-diffusion microemulsions reveals three-dimensional Turing patterns. Science. 331, 1309–1312 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Foster, J.S., Khodadad, C.L.M., Ahrendt, S.R., Parrish, M.L.: Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1340 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taber, D.F.: Organic Synthesis: State of the 2005-2007. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2008)
An edited book
Salzborn, S., Davidov, E., Reinecke, J. eds: Methods, Theories, and Empirical Applications in the Social Sciences. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, H.: 2030: Alps Tourism in the Face of Climate Change. In: Conrady, R. and Buck, M. (eds.) Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2009. pp. 57–63. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Holy Hand Grenade Dating Back To The Crusades Discovered In Israel


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Staffing, Training, and Funding Issues for FAA’s Major Work Forces. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seitz, A.E.: Epidemiology, Spatial Distribution, and Treatment Patterns of Blastomycosis in the United States, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Times, T.N.Y.: What Else Is on the Ballot in the U.S.? Minimum Wage, Death Penalty and Guns, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wingreen 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Flames and Hobert 2009; Wingreen 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flames and Hobert 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Foster et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGEM - International Journal on Geomathematics
AbbreviationGEM Int. J. Geomath.
ISSN (print)1869-2672
ISSN (online)1869-2680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles