How to format your references using the GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics (Int J Geomath). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K.: Medical imaging: Removing the blindfold. Nature. 504, S10-2 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, A.T., Becker, K.: Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data. Nature. 403, 71–74 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, J., Yan, Q., Yu, Y.: How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal? Sci. Rep. 3, 1968 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, N., Wang, X., Ye, Z., Jin, Y.: A quantitative study of chemical kinetics for the synthesis of doped oxide nanocrystals using FTIR. Sci. Rep. 4, 4353 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burghardt, G., Walls, B.: Managed Futures for Institutional Investors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Guthoff, R.F.: Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology: Principles and Applications in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Fields, G.S.: Should Poverty and Inequality Measures be Combined? In: Janvry, A. de and Kanbur, R. (eds.) Poverty, Inequality and Development: Essays in Honor of Erik Thorbecke. pp. 67–74. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Tomb of Ancient, Unknown Queen Discovered In Egypt,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: DOD Overseas Schools: Additional Assurances of Educational Quality Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman, T.: The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B.: Apollo Global Settles Securities Case as the S.E.C. Imposes a $53 Million Fine, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steneck 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bernstein 2013; Morris 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Becker 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Shelly et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGEM - International Journal on Geomathematics
AbbreviationGEM Int. J. Geomath.
ISSN (print)1869-2672
ISSN (online)1869-2680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Modelling and Simulation

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