How to format your references using the GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurtgen, M.T.: Geochemistry. The marine sulfur cycle, revisited. Science. 337, 305–306 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kondo, S., Miura, T.: Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation. Science. 329, 1616–1620 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimov, S.A., Schuur, E.A.G., Chapin, F.S., 3rd: Climate change. Permafrost and the global carbon budget. Science. 312, 1612–1613 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rieger, M.A., Lamond, M., Preston, C., Powles, S.B., Roush, R.T.: Pollen-mediated movement of herbicide resistance between commercial canola fields. Science. 296, 2386–2388 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larrieu, N., Varet, A.: Rapid Prototyping of Software for Avionics Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Hüfner, S. ed: Very High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Castilla, G., Hay, G.J.: Image objects and geographic objects. In: Blaschke, T., Lang, S., and Hay, G.J. (eds.) Object-Based Image Analysis: Spatial Concepts for Knowledge-Driven Remote Sensing Applications. pp. 91–110. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Mountain Hens Lay Glossy, Color-Changing Eggs


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Army’s Contracting Out of Laundry and Educational Testing Services at Fort Carson, Colorado. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra, A.: Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M.M.: In Michigan, Homage to the Auto’s Heritage, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hurtgen 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hurtgen 2012; Kondo and Miura 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kondo and Miura 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Rieger et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGEM - International Journal on Geomathematics
AbbreviationGEM Int. J. Geomath.
ISSN (print)1869-2672
ISSN (online)1869-2680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles