How to format your references using the GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondoh, M.: Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability. Science. 299, 1388–1391 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton, D.R., Dwek, R.A.: Immunology. Sugar determines antibody activity. Science. 313, 627–628 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, K., Zhong, G., Zhuang, X.: Actin, spectrin, and associated proteins form a periodic cytoskeletal structure in axons. Science. 339, 452–456 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, X., Xiang, W., Jiao, X., Zhang, Y., Xie, W., Wu, Q., Zhou, X., Wang, S.: Effects of plant virus and its insect vector on Encarsia formosa, a biocontrol agent of whiteflies. Sci. Rep. 4, 5926 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Broome, J.: Weighing Goods. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK (2017)
An edited book
Bassis, S., Esposito, A., Morabito, F.C. eds: Advances in Neural Networks: Computational and Theoretical Issues. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Karuppusamy, S., Jerome, J.: Real-Time Video Based Face Identification Using Fast Sparse Representation and Incremental Learning. In: Thampi, S.M., Gelbukh, A., and Mukhopadhyay, J. (eds.) Advances in Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems. pp. 33–44. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GEM - International Journal on Geomathematics.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Teenage Brains Are Wired For Learning,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1984)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seipert, K.G.: A correlational analysis of the values of Baby Boomer and Generation X rural public school principals, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: High-Fives, Not High Reps, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondoh 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Burton and Dwek 2006; Kondoh 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burton and Dwek 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGEM - International Journal on Geomathematics
AbbreviationGEM Int. J. Geomath.
ISSN (print)1869-2672
ISSN (online)1869-2680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Modelling and Simulation

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