How to format your references using the Surgical Pathology Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Pathology Clinics (PATH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mokyr J. ECONOMICS. Intellectuals and the rise of the modern economy. Science 2015;349(6244):141–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas PC., Robinson MS. Seismic resurfacing by a single impact on the asteroid 433 Eros. Nature 2005;436(7049):366–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson PD., Yund PO., Lindsay SM. Comment on “Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.” Science 2007;316(5821):53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xin H., Zhang Y., Lei H., et al. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. Sci Rep 2013;3:1993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman MT., Biegelman DR. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Kikuzawa K. Ecology of Leaf Longevity. Tokyo: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Van de Weghe N., Kuijpers B., Bogaert P., et al. A Qualitative Trajectory Calculus and the Composition of Its Relations. In: Rodríguez MA, Cruz I, Levashkin S et al., editors. GeoSpatial Semantics: First International Conference, GeoS 2005, Mexico City, Mexico, November 29-30, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 60–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Pathology Clinics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Speed Of Gravity Might Help Us Confirm Dark Energy. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gruhl DK. Santa Rosa Adopt-A-Grandparent Plus program: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robertson C., Walsh MW. Debt Crisis? Bankruptcy Fears? See Jefferson County, Ala. New York Times 2011:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Pathology Clinics
AbbreviationSurg. Pathol. Clin.
ISSN (print)1875-9181
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles