How to format your references using the Surgical Pathology Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Pathology Clinics (PATH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Closing the gaps. Nature 2008;452(7185):382–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whetten RL., Price RC. Chemistry. Nano-golden order. Science 2007;318(5849):407–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mignot T., Merlie JP Jr., Zusman DR. Regulated pole-to-pole oscillations of a bacterial gliding motility protein. Science 2005;310(5749):855–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jansen VAA., Stollenwerk N., Jensen HJ., et al. Measles outbreaks in a population with declining vaccine uptake. Science 2003;301(5634):804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinaiski EG. Hydromechanics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Miller JR. Trapping of Small Organisms Moving Randomly: Principles and Applications to Pest Monitoring and Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Manente M., Minghetti V., Mingotto E. The Analysis of European Reporting Systems for Responsible Tourism and CSR. In: Minghetti V, Mingotto E, editors. Responsible Tourism and CSR: Assessment Systems for Sustainable Development of SMEs in Tourism. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 33–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Pathology Clinics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why UPS Drivers Don’t Turn Left And You Probably Shouldn’t Either. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Effectiveness of Small Business Innovation Research Program Procedures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson WC. Spreading the dao, managing mastership, and performing salvation: The life and alchemical teachings of Chen Zhixu. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Milhollin G., Motz K. Why Iraq Will Defeat Arms Inspectors. New York Times 2002:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Pathology Clinics
AbbreviationSurg. Pathol. Clin.
ISSN (print)1875-9181
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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