How to format your references using the Surgical Pathology Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Pathology Clinics (PATH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen PA. From landscapes into geological history. Nature 2008;451(7176):274–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aβmann M., Bayer M. Compressive adaptive computational ghost imaging. Sci Rep 2013;3:1545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Herrmann B., Thöni C., Gächter S. Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 2008;319(5868):1362–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pulit-Penaloza JA., Esser ES., Vassilieva EV., et al. A protective role of murine langerin+ cells in immune responses to cutaneous vaccination with microneedle patches. Sci Rep 2014;4:6094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya VV., Cooley TF., Richardson M., et al. Regulating Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Jamin C., van Caenegem W. The Internationalisation of Legal Education. vol. 19. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Conte C., Ungaro F., Mazzaglia A., et al. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer: Principles, Clinical Applications, and Nanotechnological Approaches. In: Alonso MJ, Garcia-Fuentes M, editors. Nano-Oncologicals: New Targeting and Delivery Approaches. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 123–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Pathology Clinics.

Blog post
Hale T. What Does Science Say About Average Penis Sizes From Around The World? IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementation of the Older Americans Comprehensive Services Amendments of 1973. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bleviss C. Constructing competence: Normalization and self-determination for people with developmental disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Saudi Prince Rejects Talks With Iran. New York Times 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Pathology Clinics
AbbreviationSurg. Pathol. Clin.
ISSN (print)1875-9181
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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