How to format your references using the Surgical Pathology Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Pathology Clinics (PATH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patterson DJ. Ecology. Seeing the big picture on microbe distribution. Science 2009;325(5947):1506–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sobel HW., Suzuki Y. Obituary: Yoji Totsuka (1942-2008). Nature 2008;454(7207):954.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi S., Li H., Poulos TL. Structural basis for effector control and redox partner recognition in cytochrome P450. Science 2013;340(6137):1227–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu X., Zhang F., Jing X., et al. Complex silica composite nanomaterials templated with DNA origami. Nature 2018;559(7715):593–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noar J. Interceptive Orthodontics. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Canova F., Poletto L. Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources. vol. 197. 1st ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinha D., Chaki R. SRCHS – A Stable Reliable Cluster Head Selection Protocol. In: Özcan A, Zizka J, Nagamalai D, editors. Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks: Third International Conferences, WiMo 2011 and CoNeCo 2011, Ankara, Turkey, June 26-28, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Pathology Clinics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fossilized Plants Describe Evolution of Prehistoric Ecosystems. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rouhani M. Overdose prevention and naloxone distribution: A grant project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Ruling Sets Up Pension Battle in Bankrupt City. New York Times 2013:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Pathology Clinics
AbbreviationSurg. Pathol. Clin.
ISSN (print)1875-9181
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles