How to format your references using the Surgical Pathology Clinics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Pathology Clinics (PATH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Moving targets. Nature 2003;423(6943):1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld N., Woese C. Biology’s next revolution. Nature 2007;445(7126):369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosenbaum DM., Rasmussen SGF., Kobilka BK. The structure and function of G-protein-coupled receptors. Nature 2009;459(7245):356–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Drinnenberg IA., Weinberg DE., Xie KT., et al. RNAi in budding yeast. Science 2009;326(5952):544–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL. Trading on Sentiment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Button G. Deconstructing Ethnography: Towards a Social Methodology for Ubiquitous Computing and Interactive Systems Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferraz Dias de Moraes MA., Zilberman D. Organizational Changes Within the Private Sphere. In: Zilberman D, editor. Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: From State Intervention to a Free Market. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Pathology Clinics.

Blog post
Davis J. Incredible Preservation Of 125-Million-Year-Old Mammal Shows Soft Tissues And Hair. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Salary of Executive Director, National Advisory Council on Vocational Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fouts J. A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. For the First Time, She Hears the Birds Chirp And the Wind Whistle. New York Times 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Pathology Clinics
AbbreviationSurg. Pathol. Clin.
ISSN (print)1875-9181
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles