How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lohmueller KE. Evolution. On the origin of Peter Rabbit. Science. 2014;345(6200):1000-1001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cory DG, Havel TF. Physics. Ion entanglement in quantum information processing. Science. 2004;304(5676):1456-1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarf D, Hayne H, Colombo M. Pigeons on par with primates in numerical competence. Science. 2011;334(6063):1664.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thomson RE, Mihály SF, Rabinovich AB, McDuff RE, Veirs SR, Stahr FR. Constrained circulation at Endeavour ridge facilitates colonization by vent larvae. Nature. 2003;424(6948):545-549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waine C. Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care. Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Litrico X. Modeling and Control of Hydrosystems. (Fromion V, ed.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Robertson S. The Web, the Home and the Search Engine. In: Harper R, ed. The Connected Home: The Future of Domestic Life. Springer; 2011:79-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery: X.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Interactive Map Of Every Dinosaur Fossil Ever Found Is So Damn Cool. IFLScience. Published March 10, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Antoshin S. Modeling Inflation Expectations in the U.K. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Stranger in the Night. New York Times. January 24, 2009:CY3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery: X
ISSN (print)2590-1397

Other styles