How to format your references using the World Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwarz UD. Tribology. Tracking antiwear film formation. Science. 2015 Apr 3;348(6230):40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fallani L, Inguscio M. Physics. Controlling cold-atom conductivity. Science. 2008 Dec 5;322(5907):1480–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohn F, Handler D, Brennecke J. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided slicing specifies transcripts for Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA biogenesis. Science. 2015 May 15;348(6236):812–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Park Y, Kelley RL, Oh H, Kuroda MI, Meller VH. Extent of chromatin spreading determined by roX RNA recruitment of MSL proteins. Science. 2002 Nov 22;298(5598):1620–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartoszyǹski R, Niewiadomska-Bugaj M. Probability and Statistical Inference, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Kochergin V. Porous Semiconductors: Optical Properties and Applications. Föll H, editor. London: Springer; 2009. IX, 209 p. (Engineering Materials and Processes).
A chapter in an edited book
Hansson SO. Evaluating the Uncertainties. In: Hansson SO, Hirsch Hadorn G, editors. The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis: Reasoning about Uncertainty. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–104. (Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Medical Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S. Oldest Multicellular Life Revealed In Detail [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: National Broadband Plan Reflects the Experiences of Leading Countries, but Implementation Will Be Challenging. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Sep. Report No.: GAO-10-825.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar A. Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S. What Storm? Getting the Paper Out. New York Times. 2017 Mar 15;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0049-8122

Other styles