How to format your references using the World Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Structural genomics--from cottage industry to industrial revolution. Nature. 2000 Nov 9;408(6809):273–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan W-B, Fan H. Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 28;4:4820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batey RT, Gilbert SD, Montange RK. Structure of a natural guanine-responsive riboswitch complexed with the metabolite hypoxanthine. Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):411–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hildebrandt D, Glasser D, Hausberger B, Patel B, Glasser BJ. Chemistry. Producing transportation fuels with less work. Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1680–1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anson EM. Alexander’s Heirs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Qin Y, editor. Network Coding at Different Layers in Wireless Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. VII, 183 p. 70 illus., 28 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Rabinovich V, Alexandrov N. Simplified Smart Beamforming. In: Alexandrov N, editor. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 87–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Medical Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Star Might Have Been Faking A Supernova Explosion [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2001: Contract Transition Delays and Their Impact on Program Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Apr. Report No.: GAO-01-544T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckenridge C. Measuring Object and Attribute Salience in 2014 Illinois Gubernatorial Endorsements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Healing and Burnout, 12 Hours at a Stretch. New York Times. 2001 Jun 24;152.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0049-8122

Other styles