How to format your references using the World Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wood SN. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems. Nature. 2010 Aug 26;466(7310):1102–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gamlin PD, Yoon K. An area for vergence eye movement in primate frontal cortex. Nature. 2000 Oct 26;407(6807):1003–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hao X, Martin-Rouault L, Cui M. A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 29;4:5874.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mota MM, Pradel G, Vanderberg JP, Hafalla JC, Frevert U, Nussenzweig RS, et al. Migration of Plasmodium sporozoites through cells before infection. Science. 2001 Jan 5;291(5501):141–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Le Ruyet D, Pischella M. Digital Communications 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Zhou M, editor. Advances in Education and Management: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XIII, 627 p. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 211).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ben Mena T, Bellamine-Ben Saoud N, Ben Ahmed M, Pavard B. Towards a Methodology for Context Sensitive Systems Development. In: Kokinov B, Richardson DC, Roth-Berghofer TR, Vieu L, editors. Modeling and Using Context: 6th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, CONTEXT 2007, Roskilde, Denmark, August 20-24, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 56–68. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Canadians With Cystic Fibrosis Live 10 Years Longer Than Their American Counterparts [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/canadians-with-cystic-fibrosis-live-10-years-longer-than-their-american-counterparts/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. National Mediation Board Mandates in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-835R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Powell FM. A study of the effects of nanoparticle modification on the thermal, mechanical and hygrothermal performance of carbon/vinyl ester composites [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rothenberg B. She Beat Her Stresses. Now Can She Beat Venus? New York Times. 2017 Sep 7;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Medical Journal
ISSN (print)0049-8122
Scope

Other styles