How to format your references using the Nurse Education Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Education Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gomez, H., 2014. Astrophysics: Survival of the largest. Nature 511, 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mittermaier, A., Kay, L.E., 2006. New tools provide new insights in NMR studies of protein dynamics. Science 312, 224–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Evaristo, J., Jasechko, S., McDonnell, J.J., 2015. Global separation of plant transpiration from groundwater and streamflow. Nature 525, 91–94.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gustafsson, F.S., Whiteside, M.D., Jiranek, V., Durall, D.M., 2014. Development and use of a quantum dot probe to track multiple yeast strains in mixed culture. Sci. Rep. 4, 6971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C., 2014. Fatigue Damage. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Altvater, E., Brunnengräber, A. (Eds.), 2011. After Cancún: Climate Governance or Climate Conflicts. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Penn-Bressel, G., 2014. Sustainable Land Use – Example: Land Take for Settlement and Transport in Germany, in: Angrick, M., Burger, A., Lehmann, H. (Eds.), Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use, Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Education Today.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. There’s Toxic Pollutants In The World’s Deepest Ocean Trenches [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. [Comments on Federal Employee’s Entitlement to Relocation Expenses Pursuant to Proposed Transfer to FAA] (No. B-227236). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunbar, S., 2013. Sideshow: An alluring dichotomy of illusion and humanity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Reject ‘Class of One’ Argument. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gomez, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gomez, 2014; Mittermaier and Kay, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mittermaier and Kay, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gustafsson et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Education Today
AbbreviationNurse Educ. Today
ISSN (print)0260-6917
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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