How to format your references using the Nurse Education Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Education Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, L.A.J., 2014. Biochemistry: succinate strikes. Nature 515, 350–351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S.W.S., Schwarz, N., 2010. Washing away postdecisional dissonance. Science 328, 709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duarte, C.M., Marbá, N., Holmer, M., 2007. Ecology. Rapid domestication of marine species. Science 316, 382–383.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Close, L.M., Lenzen, R., Guirado, J.C., Nielsen, E.L., Mamajek, E.E., Brandner, W., Hartung, M., Lidman, C., Biller, B., 2005. A dynamical calibration of the mass-luminosity relation at very low stellar masses and young ages. Nature 433, 286–289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kamso, N., Ng, T.M., 2013. Investing in Islamic Funds. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Barry, C., Lang, M., Wojtkowski, W., Conboy, K., Wojtkowski, G. (Eds.), 2009. Information Systems Development: Challenges in Practice, Theory, and Education Volume 2. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Meza-Jiménez, J., Escamilla-López, M., Llamas-Cabello, R., 2014. Statistical Process Control: A Vital Tool for Quality Assurance, in: García-Alcaraz, J.L., Maldonado-Macías, A.A., Cortes-Robles, G. (Eds.), Lean Manufacturing in the Developing World: Methodology, Case Studies and Trends from Latin America. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Education Today.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. Martian Resonance Found In 87-Million-Year-Old Rocks Confirms A Chaotic Solar System [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Space Transportation: NASA Has No Firm Need for Increasingly Costly Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (No. NSIAD-90-192). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A.S., 2017. Fatigue Behavior and Microstructure of Direct Laser Deposited Inconel 718 Alloy (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., Kovaleski, S.F., 2014. Marathon Bombing Suspect Waits in Isolation. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Schwarz, 2010; O’Neill, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Schwarz, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Close et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Education Today
AbbreviationNurse Educ. Today
ISSN (print)0260-6917
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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