How to format your references using the Nurse Education Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Education Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cornet, F.H., 2015. SEISMOLOGY. Earthquakes induced by fluid injections. Science 348, 1204–1205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Redman, C.W., Sargent, I.L., 2005. Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia. Science 308, 1592–1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rao, C.V., Wolf, D.M., Arkin, A.P., 2002. Control, exploitation and tolerance of intracellular noise. Nature 420, 231–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tumbula, D.L., Becker, H.D., Chang, W.Z., Söll, D., 2000. Domain-specific recruitment of amide amino acids for protein synthesis. Nature 407, 106–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, S.V., 2001. Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Friedrich, K., 2005. Polymer Composites: From Nano- to Macro-Scale. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimitriou, T., 2005. Efficient Mechanisms for Secure Inter-node and Aggregation Processing in Sensor Networks, in: Syrotiuk, V.R., Chávez, E. (Eds.), Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 4th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2005, Cancun, Mexico, October 6-8, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 18–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Education Today.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Astronomers Peer Back In Time At A Supernova Before It Exploded [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. NIH Biomedical Research Support Grant Program (No. HRD-81-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, H., 2010. Was sagte dieser Schiller (damals)? Schillers Antworten auf seine Kritiker nach 1945 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. You Only Turn 40 One Time. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cornet, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cornet, 2015; Redman and Sargent, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Redman and Sargent, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tumbula et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Education Today
AbbreviationNurse Educ. Today
ISSN (print)0260-6917
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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