How to format your references using the World Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ghosh A. Neurobiology. Learning more about NMDA receptor regulation. Science 2002;295:449–51 [PMID: 11799227]
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins CE, Galán JE. Structural mimicry in bacterial virulence. Nature 2001;412:701–5 [PMID: 11507631]
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll AH, Walter MR. Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin. Nature 2003;423:632–5 [PMID: 12789336]
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sibly RM, Barker D, Denham MC, Hone J, Pagel M. On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects. Science 2005;309:607–10 [PMID: 16040705]

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anisman H. Stress and Your Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Kyung C-M, Yoo S, editors. Energy-Aware System Design: Algorithms and Architectures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Timmins P. Detergent Binding in Membrane Protein Crystals by Neutron Crystallography. In: Gutberlet T, Katsaras J. Neutron Scattering in Biology: Techniques and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. page 73–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Seashell-Inspired Material Inspiring A New Wave Of Safety Gear In Sport [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Merchant Marine: Maritime Administration Should Assess Potential Mariner-Training Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joubert BR. Human genetic susceptibility to mother to child transmission of HIV: A study of mother-infant pairs in Malawi. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Hit Show? No, but Close Enough. New York Times2017;B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationWorld J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1007-9327
ISSN (online)2219-2840
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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