How to format your references using the World Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Joos F. Global warming: Growing feedback from ocean carbon to climate. Nature 2015;522:295–6 [PMID: 26085267]
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ward LD, Kellis M. Response to comment on ‘Evidence of abundant purifying selection in humans for recently acquired regulatory functions’. Science 2013;340:682 [PMID: 23661743]
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Dieterich J, Cayol V, Okubo P. The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano. Nature 2000;408:457–60 [PMID: 11100724]
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Dominici N, Ivanenko YP, Cappellini G, d’Avella A, Mondì V, Cicchese M, Fabiano A, Silei T, Di Paolo A, Giannini C, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Locomotor primitives in newborn babies and their development. Science 2011;334:997–9 [PMID: 22096202]

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zlokarnik M. Scale-up. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Leung CB, Ruan J, editors. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Chinese Literacy in China. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sorour MK, El-Sakhawy A. On the Evolution of Corporate Governance Culture in Africa: The Case of the Egyptian Banking Sector. In: Howell KE, Sorour MK. Corporate Governance in Africa: Assessing Implementation and Ethical Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. page 69–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Enormous Algal Bloom In Chile Is Poisoning Wildlife [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/largest-red-tide-outbreak-currently-hitting-southern-chile/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Desam JR. Effective Nodal Placement in Overlay Networks Using Complexity Theory. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. More Than Just a Deli. New York Times2010;NJ11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationWorld J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1007-9327
ISSN (online)2219-2840
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

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