How to format your references using the World Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zastrow M. Data visualization: science on the map. Nature 2015;519:119–20 [PMID: 25739633]
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicer GJ, Yu Y-TN. Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature 2003;425:75–8 [PMID: 12955143]
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsieh C-S, Kovářík J, Logan T. How central are clients in sexual networks created by commercial sex? Sci Rep 2014;4:7540 [PMID: 25519182]
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stites EC, Trampont PC, Ma Z, Ravichandran KS. Network analysis of oncogenic Ras activation in cancer. Science 2007;318:463–7 [PMID: 17947584]

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner H. Project Management 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Tepper SJ, Tepper DE, editors. The Cleveland Clinic Manual of Headache Therapy: Second Edition. 2nd ed. 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Vukadin IK, Borovec K, Golub TL. Policing in Croatia: The Main Challenges on the Path to Democratic Policing. In: Meško G, Fields CB, Lobnikar B, Sotlar A. Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. page 31–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Video: deep-sea showdown between squid and fish [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Corps Electronic Signature System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood RD. Correlation of conductor leadership style, musician employment status, organizational participation to orchestra musician job satisfaction. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. The Image Is Fixed, but Our Lives Are in Flux. New York Times2016;C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationWorld J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1007-9327
ISSN (online)2219-2840
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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