How to format your references using the World Development Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Development Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K. (2003). Growing pains. Nature, 423(6939), 568–569.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hennessy, E. T., & Betley, T. A. (2013). Complex N-heterocycle synthesis via iron-catalyzed, direct C-H bond amination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 591–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripodi, M., Stepien, A. E., & Arber, S. (2011). Motor antagonism exposed by spatial segregation and timing of neurogenesis. Nature, 479(7371), 61–66.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pennekamp, F., Pontarp, M., Tabi, A., Altermatt, F., Alther, R., Choffat, Y., Fronhofer, E. A., Ganesanandamoorthy, P., Garnier, A., Griffiths, J. I., Greene, S., Horgan, K., Massie, T. M., Mächler, E., Palamara, G. M., Seymour, M., & Petchey, O. L. (2018). Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability. Nature, 563(7729), 109–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer, P. D. (2005). Mathematical Journeys. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drossopoulou, S. (Ed.). (2008). Programming Languages and Systems: 17th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 4960). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Köthe, U. (2006). Low-level Feature Detection Using the Boundary Tensor. In J. Weickert & H. Hagen (Eds.), Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields (pp. 63–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Development Perspectives.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, September 8). Yosemite National Park Grows By 400 Acres In Largest Expansion In 70 Years. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Science And Technology: Air Force’s Planning Process Meets Statutory Requirement (GAO-02-273). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alvarez, D. J. (2010). Piloted simulation study comparing classical and robust flight control design methods [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M., & Kelly, K. (2017, September 21). Ousted Federal Prosecutor, a Trump Critic, Will Join CNN as an Analyst. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hennessy & Betley, 2013; Powell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hennessy & Betley, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Tripodi et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pennekamp et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Development Perspectives
AbbreviationWorld Dev. Perspect.
ISSN (print)2452-2929

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