How to format your references using the World Development Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Development Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). The joy of the lab. Nature, 431(7005), 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gompel, N., & Carroll, S. B. (2003). Genetic mechanisms and constraints governing the evolution of correlated traits in drosophilid flies. Nature, 424(6951), 931–935.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gauld, S. B., Dal Porto, J. M., & Cambier, J. C. (2002). B cell antigen receptor signaling: roles in cell development and disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1641–1642.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moore, D. L., Blackmore, M. G., Hu, Y., Kaestner, K. H., Bixby, J. L., Lemmon, V. P., & Goldberg, J. L. (2009). KLF family members regulate intrinsic axon regeneration ability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5950), 298–301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLaughlin, T. A. (2010). Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goldreich, O. (Ed.). (2010). Property Testing: Current Research and Surveys (Vol. 6390). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Apsel, A., Wang, X., & Dokania, R. (2014). Pulse Coupled Oscillator Networks. In X. Wang & R. Dokania (Eds.), Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios (pp. 77–93). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Development Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 9). Gut microbe therapy reduces autism-like symptoms in mice. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: Agriculture Needs to Strengthen Management Practices for Stabilizing and Modernizing Its Farm Program Delivery Systems (No. GAO-08-657). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dominguez, Y. C. (2014). Recruitment, training, and support for foster parents of children birth to 4 years: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N. (2011, August 9). Black-and-White Struggle With a Rosy Glow. New York Times, p. AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gompel & Carroll, 2003; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gompel & Carroll, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Gauld, Dal Porto, & Cambier, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moore et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Development Perspectives
AbbreviationWorld Dev. Perspect.
ISSN (print)2452-2929

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