How to format your references using the World Development Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Development Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pemberton, S. (2014). Perspective: The fix is in. Nature, 515(7528), S165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koo, H.-J., & Velev, O. D. (2013). Regenerable photovoltaic devices with a hydrogel-embedded microvascular network. Scientific Reports, 3, 2357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polikanov, Y. S., Blaha, G. M., & Steitz, T. A. (2012). How hibernation factors RMF, HPF, and YfiA turn off protein synthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083), 915–918.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nalbant, P., Hodgson, L., Kraynov, V., Toutchkine, A., & Hahn, K. M. (2004). Activation of endogenous Cdc42 visualized in living cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1615–1619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Landragin, F. (2013). Man-Machine Dialogue. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martinelli, E. (Ed.). (2011). Teoria delle funzioni di più variabili complesse e delle funzioni automorfe (Vol. 11). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Charpiat, G., Hofmann, M., & Schölkopf, B. (2015). Kernel Methods in Medical Imaging. In N. Paragios, J. Duncan, & N. Ayache (Eds.), Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research (pp. 63–81). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Development Perspectives.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, August 6). New Finch Species Evolves Before Our Eyes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (B-165118). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, C. W. (2012). Music genre on the move: Discourse and the cultural production of Japanese visual rock in Hong Kong [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman, S. (2015, May 15). Love, Redeployed. New York Times, MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pemberton, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Koo & Velev, 2013; Pemberton, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koo & Velev, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Polikanov et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nalbant et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Development Perspectives
AbbreviationWorld Dev. Perspect.
ISSN (print)2452-2929

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