How to format your references using the World Development Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Development Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heymann, D. L. (2014). Ebola: learn from the past. Nature, 514(7522), 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeConto, R. M., & Pollard, D. (2003). Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature, 421(6920), 245–249.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener, T. W., Losos, J. B., & Spiller, D. A. (2005). Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5755), 1807–1809.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Orning, P., Weng, D., Starheim, K., Ratner, D., Best, Z., Lee, B., Brooks, A., Xia, S., Wu, H., Kelliher, M. A., Berger, S. B., Gough, P. J., Bertin, J., Proulx, M. M., Goguen, J. D., Kayagaki, N., Fitzgerald, K. A., & Lien, E. (2018). Pathogen blockade of TAK1 triggers caspase-8-dependent cleavage of gasdermin D and cell death. Science (New York, N.Y.).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, A. M. (2011). Internal Control of Fixed Assets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bellucci, S. (2006). Supersymmetric Mechanics – Vol. 2: The Attractor Mechanism and Space Time Singularities (A. Marrani & S. Ferrara, Eds.; Vol. 701). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lytle, E. (2016). Early Greek and Latin Sources on the Indian Ocean and Eastern Africa. In G. Campbell (Ed.), Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World (pp. 113–134). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Development Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 9). Should We Edit Out Genetic Disease? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Tax Systems Modernization: Progress Mixed In Addressing Critical Success Factors (T-IMTEC-92-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasa, S. R. (2017). Visual Basic Simulation of H2S Removal from Natural Gas at Downhole in an Extraction Well [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, August 17). Who’s at Second, And Now Third? It’s the Catcher. New York Times, B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heymann, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (DeConto & Pollard, 2003; Heymann, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeConto & Pollard, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Schoener et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Orning et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Development Perspectives
AbbreviationWorld Dev. Perspect.
ISSN (print)2452-2929

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