How to format your references using the Wildlife Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wildlife Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Biemann, K. 2006. Astrochemistry: Complex organic matter in Titan’s aerosols? - Nature 444: E6; disccussion E6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treguer, P. and Pondaven, P. 2000. Global change. Silica control of carbon dioxide. - Nature 406: 358–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard, C. L. et al. 2005. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. - Science 307: 1927.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raftopoulou, M. et al. 2004. Regulation of cell migration by the C2 domain of the tumor suppressor PTEN. - Science 303: 1179–1181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhurin, V. V. 2011. Industrial Ion Sources. - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
2005. Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2004: 5th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Tokyo, Japan, November 30 - December 3, 2004. Proceedings, Part III (K Aizawa, Y Nakamura, and S Satoh, Eds.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yaduvanshi, R. S. and Parthasarathy, H. 2016. Mathematical Analysis of Transcendental Equation in Rectangular DRA. - In: Parthasarathy, H. (ed), Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas: Theory and Design. Springer India, pp. 57–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wildlife Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Recipient of a Trachea Implant Made From Stem Cells is Still Healthy Five Years Later. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garrett, D. 2013. A quantitative study of STEM goal and role alignment across stakeholder leaders in California: Advocacy for application of a systems solution approach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2008. Salads, Sandwiches, And Parking. - New York Times: NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Biemann 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Treguer and Pondaven 2000, Biemann 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Treguer and Pondaven 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Raftopoulou et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWildlife Biology
AbbreviationWildlife Biol.
ISSN (print)0909-6396
ISSN (online)1903-220X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles