How to format your references using the Wildlife Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wildlife Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hajduk, S. L. 2006. Microbiology. Timing the sexual development of parasites. - Science 313: 626–627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Djupedal, I. and Ekwall, K. 2008. Molecular biology. The paradox of silent heterochromatin. - Science 320: 624–625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dai, L. et al. 2013. Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations. - Nature 496: 355–358.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, X. et al. 2014. Plasmonic nanostructures to enhance catalytic performance of zeolites under visible light. - Sci. Rep. 4: 3805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety 1999. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2011. Methods to Analyse Agricultural Commodity Price Volatility (I Piot-Lepetit and R M’Barek, Eds.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aumüller, M. and Dietzfelbinger, M. 2013. Optimal Partitioning for Dual Pivot Quicksort. - In: Fomin, F. V. et al. (eds), Automata, Languages, and Programming: 40th International Colloquium, ICALP 2013, Riga, Latvia, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wildlife Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. The Pillars Of Creation - A Glimpse Into How Stars Are Born. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016. Vehicle Cybersecurity: DOT and Industry Have Efforts Under Way, but DOT Needs to Define Its Role in Responding to a Real-world Attack.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, J. S. 2012. Trust in immediate supervisor, trust in top management, organizational trust precursors: Predictors of organizational effectiveness.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, S. 2017. Size Matters. - New York Times: BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hajduk 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hajduk 2006, Djupedal and Ekwall 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Djupedal and Ekwall 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWildlife Biology
AbbreviationWildlife Biol.
ISSN (print)0909-6396
ISSN (online)1903-220X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles