How to format your references using the Wildlife Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wildlife Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2004. The philanthropic principle. - Nature 431: 719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chapman, A. and Wyndham, J. 2013. Human rights. A human right to science. - Science 340: 1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koschowitz, M.-C. et al. 2014. Evolution. Beyond the rainbow. - Science 346: 416–418.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gerber, S. et al. 2008. Structural basis of trans-inhibition in a molybdate/tungstate ABC transporter. - Science 321: 246–250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steele, D. 2011. From Therapist to Coach. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Casu, B. 2016. Building Societies in the Financial Services Industry (A Gall, Ed.). - Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Granström, J. G. 2011. Assumption and Substitution. - In: Granström, J. G. (ed), Treatise on Intuitionistic Type Theory. Springer Netherlands, pp. 107–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wildlife Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015. This Self-Driving Car Comes With A Landing Pad For A Drone. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998. FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schenkelberg, V. 2010. Cultural competence training: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Taggart, J. and Granville, K. 2017. How We Shop: Past, Present Future. - New York Times: BU4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004, Chapman and Wyndham 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chapman and Wyndham 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gerber et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWildlife Biology
AbbreviationWildlife Biol.
ISSN (print)0909-6396
ISSN (online)1903-220X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles