How to format your references using the Wildlife Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wildlife Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vignieri, S. 2014. Vanishing fauna. Introduction. - Science 345: 392–395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang, C. and Grant, P. S. 2013. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors. - Sci. Rep. 3: 2393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, R. J. et al. 2006. Ischemia opens neuronal gap junction hemichannels. - Science 312: 924–927.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gavin, A. L. et al. 2006. Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses in the absence of toll-like receptor signaling. - Science 314: 1936–1938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke, R. 2005. The History of Mathematics. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2014. Image Analysis and Recognition: 11th International Conference, ICIAR 2014, Vilamoura, Portugal, October 22-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part I (A Campilho and M Kamel, Eds.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dincer, I. and Joshi, A. S. 2013. Solar Hydrogen Production. - In: Joshi, A. S. (ed), Solar Based Hydrogen Production Systems. SpringerBriefs in Energy. Springer, pp. 27–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wildlife Biology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Skin Cancer Drug Allows Fruit Flies to Live Longer. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005. Intermodal Transportation: Potential Strategies Would Redefine Federal Role in Developing Airport Intermodal Capabilities.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoch, V. A. 2014. The Effects of Systematic Reinforcement on Academic Performance in Precision Teaching: An Investigation of Acquisition, Retention, and Endurance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. 2016. Decline in Oil Prices Lands on Government Workers as Saudi Arabia Cuts Paychecks. - New York Times: A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vignieri 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Huang and Grant 2013, Vignieri 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Grant 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gavin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWildlife Biology
AbbreviationWildlife Biol.
ISSN (print)0909-6396
ISSN (online)1903-220X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles