How to format your references using the Wildlife Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wildlife Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns, C. J. 2005. Chemistry. Bridging a gap in actinide chemistry. - Science 309: 1823–1824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, G. and Goeddel, D. V. 2002. TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway. - Science 296: 1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbot, S. et al. 2012. Under the hood of the earthquake machine: toward predictive modeling of the seismic cycle. - Science 336: 707–710.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamamoto, Y. et al. 2007. Creep-resistant, Al2O3-forming austenitic stainless steels. - Science 316: 433–436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch, V. 2009. Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z. - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
2016. Light-Responsive Nanostructured Systems for Applications in Nanomedicine (S Sortino, Ed.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, H. et al. 2014. Exploring Designing Styles Using a Problem–Solution Division. - In: Gero, J. S. (ed), Design Computing and Cognition ’12. Springer Netherlands, pp. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wildlife Biology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. Monkeys Use Researchers as Human Shields. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989. Status of the Research Fleet of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tyler, E. P. 2013. Tectonic geomorphology of quaternary river terraces at Santa Cruz Creek, Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2006. roberts court may be defined in second term. - New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Goeddel 2002, Burns 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Goeddel 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWildlife Biology
AbbreviationWildlife Biol.
ISSN (print)0909-6396
ISSN (online)1903-220X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles