How to format your references using the Surgery Open Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Open Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami C. Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts. Nature 2015;521:426–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan MJT, Kable SH. Chemistry. Roaming reaction pathways along excited states. Science 2012;335:1054–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dotera T, Oshiro T, Ziherl P. Mosaic two-lengthscale quasicrystals. Nature 2014;506:208–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Everaers R, Sukumaran SK, Grest GS, Svaneborg C, Sivasubramanian A, Kremer K. Rheology and microscopic topology of entangled polymeric liquids. Science 2004;303:823–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darling-Hammond L, Meyerson D, LaPointe M, Terry Orr M, Barber M, Cohen C, et al. Preparing Principals for a Changing World. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bas; 2009.
An edited book
Ebbin SA, Håkon Hoel A, Sydnes AK, editors. A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Sano T, Hori J-I, Takahashi Y, Unesaki H, Nakajima K. Development of Nondestructive Assay of Fuel Debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (2): Numerical Validation for the Application of a Self-Indication Method. In: Nakajima K, editor. Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal: Beyond the Fukushima Accident, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 31–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Open Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Logical Circuits Created With Slime Molds. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: Core Financial Systems at the 24 Chief Financial Officers Act Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munchel BF. Exploratory Study of Counseling Professionals’ Attitudes Toward Distance Clinical Supervision. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Cupid With a Dark Side. New York Times 2006:14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Open Science
ISSN (print)2589-8450

Other styles