How to format your references using the Surgery Open Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Open Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Dolgin E. Deprivation: a wake-up call. Nature 2013;497:S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Tanaka KD, Ueda K. Horsfield’s hawk-cuckoo nestlings simulate multiple gapes for begging. Science 2005;308:653.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Han JS, Szak ST, Boeke JD. Transcriptional disruption by the L1 retrotransposon and implications for mammalian transcriptomes. Nature 2004;429:268–74.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Azzam R, Chen SL, Shou W, Mah AS, Alexandru G, Nasmyth K, et al. Phosphorylation by cyclin B-Cdk underlies release of mitotic exit activator Cdc14 from the nucleolus. Science 2004;305:516–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Assing D, Calé S. Mobile Access Safety. Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Liberty J. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Coppolino RN. Response DOF Selection for Mapping Experimental Normal Modes-2016 Update. In: Allen M, Mayes RL, Rixen D, editors. Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Open Science.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. China, U.S. and Brazil Make New Climate Pledges. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Overstatement of Contract Target Cost for First Stage of Saturn V Launch Vehicle. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Adams TA. Improving Scores on Computerized Reading Assessments: The Effects of Colored Overlay Use. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Sisario B. Turmoil Continues at Pandora Media As C.E.O. Joins Management Exodus. New York Times 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Open Science
ISSN (print)2589-8450
Scope

Other styles