How to format your references using the Surgery Open Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Open Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Goldstein RH. Paleoenvironment. Clues from fluid inclusions. Science 2001;294:1009–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Nakatani H, Yamaguchi Y. Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Sci Rep 2014;4:5894.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Opher M, Stone EC, Gombosi TI. The orientation of the local interstellar magnetic field. Science 2007;316:875–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Quinlan ME, Heuser JE, Kerkhoff E, Mullins RD. Drosophila Spire is an actin nucleation factor. Nature 2005;433:382–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Knowles R. 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Schrogl K-U, Pagkratis S, Baranes B, editors. Yearbook on Space Policy 2009/2010: Space for Society. Vienna: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Chiu C-J. Cultivating a Humanistic Mind: A View from Taiwan. In: Chan ETY, O’Sullivan M, editors. The Humanities in Contemporary Chinese Contexts, Singapore: Springer; 2016, p. 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Open Science.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Can Bacteria Help Save Bats From a Deadly Fungus? IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/can-bacteria-help-save-bats-deadly-fungus/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Federal-Aid Highways: Federal Requirements for Highways May Influence Funding Decisions and Create Challenges, but Benefits and Costs Are Not Tracked. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Clark M. How Charter School Teachers Act on Perceived Autonomy: A Qualitative Study of Curricular Decisions. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Sisario B. Cardi B Knocks Swift Out of the No. 1 Spot. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Open Science
ISSN (print)2589-8450
Scope

Other styles