How to format your references using the Surgery Open Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgery Open Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Socha JJ. Gliding flight in the paradise tree snake. Nature 2002;418:603–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meier MF, Dyurgerov MB. Sea level changes. How Alaska affects the world. Science 2002;297:350–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winn JN, Rusin D, Kochanek CS. The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar. Nature 2004;427:613–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lauterbach MA, Guillon M, Soltani A, Emiliani V. STED microscope with spiral phase contrast. Sci Rep 2013;3:2050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hiltscher G, Mühlthaler W, Smits J. Industrial Pigging Technology. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
Bettiol P, Cannarsa P, Colombo G, Motta M, Rampazzo F, editors. Analysis and Geometry in Control Theory and its Applications. vol. 11. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Fred ALN, Lourenço A, Aidos H, Rota Bulò S, Rebagliati N, Figueiredo MAT, et al. Learning Similarities from Examples Under the Evidence Accumulation Clustering Paradigm. In: Pelillo M, editor. Similarity-Based Pattern Analysis and Recognition, London: Springer; 2013, p. 85–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgery Open Science.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Tracking American Eels On The Open Sea To Crack The Mystery Of Their Migration. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. What Assurance Does Office of Education’s Eligibility Process Provide? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck K. Comparing high school physics standards: What is included and what is not. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. New Prosecutors Will Fight Drunken Driving. New York Times 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgery Open Science
ISSN (print)2589-8450

Other styles