How to format your references using the Welding International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Welding International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Radick G. HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Beyond the “Mendel-Fisher controversy.” Science. 2015;350:159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Campillo M, Paul A. Long-range correlations in the diffuse seismic coda. Science. 2003;299:547–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sarrazin AF, Peel AD, Averof M. A segmentation clock with two-segment periodicity in insects. Science. 2012;336:338–341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Ren T, He W, Li Y, et al. Light-induced vibration in the hearing organ. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Püschl W. Physik des Segelns. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Cabestany J, Rojas I, Joya G, editors. Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2011, Torremolinos-Málaga, Spain, June 8-10, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Martindale RG, Deveney CW. Preoperative Preparation of the Patient Undergoing Incisional Hernia Repair: Optimizing Chances for Success. In: Novitsky YW, editor. Hernia Surgery: Current Principles. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Welding International.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. New Guinea Flatworm, one of the Worst Known Invasive Species, Found in US. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. European Aeronautics: Strong Government Presence in Industry Structure and Research and Development Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Report No.: NSIAD-94-71. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Puebla RA. The avant-garde tuba: Analysis and comparisons of interpretations of William Kraft’s Encounters II for unaccompanied tuba [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Vecsey G. With Memories Entrenched, a Hallowed Site Plows Forward. New York Times. 2014 Aug 30;SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWelding International
AbbreviationWeld. Int.
ISSN (print)0950-7116
ISSN (online)1754-2138
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Metals and Alloys

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