How to format your references using the Welding International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Welding International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S. Avoiding ambiguity. Nature. 2001;412:589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duan H, Sun C. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson FJ, Downard AJ, Baronian KH. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chou CW, de Riedmatten H, Felinto D, et al. Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles. Nature. 2005;438:828–832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Deventer DR, Imai K, Mesler M. Advanced Financial Risk Management, Second Edition. Solaris South Tower, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
Robinson PJ. Behavioral Consultation and Primary Care: A Guide to Integrating Services. Reiter JT, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Rondon E, Salazar S, Escareno J, et al. Vision-based Position Control of a Two-rotor VTOL miniUAV. In: Valavanis KP, Beard R, Oh P, et al., editors. Selected papers from the 2nd International Symposium on UAVs, Reno, Nevada, USA June 8–10, 2009. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Welding International.

Blog post
Luntz S. Hunter-Gatherer Societies Have Three-Tiered Social Networks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Status of New Starts Transit Projects With Full Funding Grant Agreements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999. Report No.: RCED-99-240. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis JA. Demobilizing the Minors: Examining Compliance with International Child Soldiering Laws [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. An Indomitable Woman Goes West. New York Times. 2017 Jun 13;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWelding International
AbbreviationWeld. Int.
ISSN (print)0950-7116
ISSN (online)1754-2138
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Metals and Alloys

Other styles