How to format your references using the Weed Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2003) Working for peanuts. Nature 425:323
A journal article with 2 authors
Somerville MA, Atlas RM (2005) Ethics: a weapon to counter bioterrorism. Science 307:1881–1882
A journal article with 3 authors
Jönsson TJ, Johnson LC, Lowther WT (2008) Structure of the sulphiredoxin-peroxiredoxin complex reveals an essential repair embrace. Nature 451:98–101
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Han Y, Li S, Cao X, Yuan L, Wang Y, Yin Y, Qiu T, Dai H, Wang X (2014) Different inhibitory effect and mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on normal cells and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep 4:7134

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lade PV (2016) Triaxial Testing of Soils. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Bilheux HZ, McGreevy R, Anderson IS, eds. (2009) Neutron Imaging and Applications: A Reference for the Imaging Community. Boston, MA: Springer US. XVI, 341 p p
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng Y, Zhuang J, Su Z (2016) Construction of Domain Ontology for Engineering Equipment Maintenance Support. Pages 33–38 in H Chen, H Ji, L Sun, H Wang, T Qian, T Ruan, eds. Knowledge Graph and Semantic Computing: Semantic, Knowledge, and Linked Big Data: First China Conference, CCKS 2016, Beijing, China, September 19-22, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Singapore: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Ocean “Dead Zones” Are Spreading – And That Spells Disaster For Fish. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Higher Education: Selected Information on Student Financial Aid Received by Legal Immigrants. HEHS-96-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magner TJ (2014) Performance and leadership in multiplayer online gaming. Doctoral dissertation. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zecher LK (2013) The Path to Publishing. New York Times:BU8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003, Somerville and Atlas 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Somerville and Atlas 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Technology
AbbreviationWeed Technol.
ISSN (print)0890-037X
ISSN (online)1550-2740
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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