How to format your references using the Weed Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee C-TA (2004) Geophysics. Are Earth’s core and mantle on speaking terms? Science 306:64–65
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpicke JD, Blunt JR (2011) Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science 331:772–775
A journal article with 3 authors
Risk JM, Macknight RC, Day CL (2008) FCA does not bind abscisic acid. Nature 456:E5-6
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vasudevan RK, Okatan MB, Rajapaksa I, Kim Y, Marincel D, Trolier-McKinstry S, Jesse S, Valanoor N, Kalinin SV (2013) Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution. Sci Rep 3:2677

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff NP (2014) Dust Explosion and Fire Prevention Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Miles I (2016) Foresight for Science, Technology and Innovation. Page (O Saritas, A Sokolov, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing. XIII, 270 p. 85 illus., 51 illus. in color p
A chapter in an edited book
Schlein B (2015) Spectral Properties of Wigner Matrices. Pages 179–205 in V Gayrard, N Kistler, eds. Correlated Random Systems: Five Different Methods: CIRM Jean-Morlet Chair, Spring 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) E-Cigarette Vapor Shown To Repress Immune System. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Services to Indian Head Start Grantees Under a Special Program. HRD-76-141. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar VR (2012) A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates. Doctoral dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2017) Staying ‘in the ’Hood, Up to No Good’. New York Times:MB2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Karpicke and Blunt 2011, Lee 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karpicke and Blunt 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Vasudevan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Technology
AbbreviationWeed Technol.
ISSN (print)0890-037X
ISSN (online)1550-2740
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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