How to format your references using the Weed Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Weed Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V (2007) Hub of alternative energy. Nature 446:106
A journal article with 2 authors
Prospero JM, Lamb PJ (2003) African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications. Science 302:1024–1027
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan N, Fu Z, Liu S (2014) Extracting climate memory using Fractional Integrated Statistical Model: a new perspective on climate prediction. Sci Rep 4:6577
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ferrari R, Pellegrini M, Horwitz GA, Xie W, Berk AJ, Kurdistani SK (2008) Epigenetic reprogramming by adenovirus e1a. Science 321:1086–1088

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus Y (2012) Supercritical Water. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Moisan M (2012) Physics of Collisional Plasmas: Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges. Page (J Pelletier, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. XXIV, 480 p p
A chapter in an edited book
Aronson T, Hogan A, O’Brien W, Rosenblatt R, Schwartz L, Simon M, Wagner W (2006) Achieving Best Execution Through Market Structure Development. Pages 49–66 in RA Schwartz, JA Byrne, A Colaninno, eds. Electronic vs. Floor Based Trading. Boston, MA: Springer US

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Weed Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) How To Set Up A VPN After Congress Voted To Sell Your Online Data. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Federal Support for Developing Language and Literacy. GAO-11-357. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi Y (2012) Three essays on econometrics. Doctoral dissertation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker AL (2014) Nebraska University Chief Is Chosen to Lead CUNY. New York Times:A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2007, Prospero and Lamb 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prospero and Lamb 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferrari et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeed Technology
AbbreviationWeed Technol.
ISSN (print)0890-037X
ISSN (online)1550-2740
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

Other styles