How to format your references using the Watershed Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Watershed Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crous, C.J., 2014. Judge research impact on a local scale. Nature 513, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Isalan, M., Morrison, M., 2009. This title is false. Nature 458, 969.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gustafson, J.L., Lim, D., Miller, S.J., 2010. Dynamic kinetic resolution of biaryl atropisomers via peptide-catalyzed asymmetric bromination. Science 328, 1251–1255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fleming, I.A., Einum, S., Jonsson, B., Jonsson, N., 2003. Comment on “rapid evolution of egg size in captive Salmon.” Science 302, 59; discussion 59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Summers, N., 2010. Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Orlowska, E., 2011. Dual Tableaux: Foundations, Methodology, Case Studies, Trends in Logic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Malawer, M.M., Kellar-Graney, K.L., 2011. Tumors of the Musculoskeletal System, in: Wiesel, S.W., Delahay, J.N. (Eds.), Essentials of Orthopedic Surgery. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 99–171.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Watershed Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Zuckerberg And Chan Announce Plan To Tackle All Diseases Within A Century [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Aviation: FAA’s Use and Management of Communications Resources (No. IMTEC-90-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, V., 2012. One yard shy of empowerment: Cinematic portrayals of female athletes (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2005. Abortion Case May Be Central In Confirmation. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crous, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Crous, 2014; Isalan and Morrison, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Isalan and Morrison, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Fleming et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWatershed Ecology and the Environment
ISSN (print)2589-4714

Other styles