How to format your references using the Watershed Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Watershed Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2005. Cultivating black gold. Nature 433, 779.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shenoy, S.K., Rockman, H.A., 2011. Cardiovascular biology: heart fails without pump partner. Nature 477, 546–547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojstaczer, S., Sterling, S.M., Moore, N.J., 2001. Human appropriation of photosynthesis products. Science 294, 2549–2552.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, R., Mitra, N., Gratkowski, H., Vilaire, G., Litvinov, R., Nagasami, C., Weisel, J.W., Lear, J.D., DeGrado, W.F., Bennett, J.S., 2003. Activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by modulation of transmembrane helix associations. Science 300, 795–798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epperlein, P.W., 2013. Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Ribes, R., 2008. Cardiovascular English. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rózsa, S., Kenyeres, A., Weidinger, T., Gyöngyösi, A.Z., 2014. Near Real Time Estimation of Integrated Water Vapour from GNSS Observations in Hungary, in: Rizos, C., Willis, P. (Eds.), Earth on the Edge: Science for a Sustainable Planet: Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, June 28 - July 2, 2011, International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Watershed Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. NASA’s $1 Billion Jupiter Probe Has Suffered 2 Big Problems In 2 Days [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts (No. HRD-93-97). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre, R.R., 2019. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McFADDEN, R.D., 2017. June Foray Is Dead at 99; Voiced Rocky and a Cast Of Animated Characters. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Shenoy and Rockman, 2011; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shenoy and Rockman, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWatershed Ecology and the Environment
ISSN (print)2589-4714

Other styles