How to format your references using the Watershed Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Watershed Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stan, R., 2014. The borders I crossed. Science 345, 1650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone, R., Lavine, M., 2014. Robots. The social life of robots. Introduction. Science 346, 178–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tschöp, M., Smiley, D.L., Heiman, M.L., 2000. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407, 908–913.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hughes, T.P., Anderson, K.D., Connolly, S.R., Heron, S.F., Kerry, J.T., Lough, J.M., Baird, A.H., Baum, J.K., Berumen, M.L., Bridge, T.C., Claar, D.C., Eakin, C.M., Gilmour, J.P., Graham, N.A.J., Harrison, H., Hobbs, J.-P.A., Hoey, A.S., Hoogenboom, M., Lowe, R.J., McCulloch, M.T., Pandolfi, J.M., Pratchett, M., Schoepf, V., Torda, G., Wilson, S.K., 2018. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359, 80–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, R., 2006. Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Anker, J.-P., Orsted, B. (Eds.), 2005. Lie Theory: Unitary Representations and Compactifications of Symmetric Spaces, Progress in Mathematics. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, A., Suskind, A.M., Huang, A.J., 2016. Urinary Incontinence Among Older Adults, in: Lindquist, L.A. (Ed.), New Directions in Geriatric Medicine: Concepts, Trends, and Evidence-Based Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Watershed Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Spectacular New Hubble Image Of The Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Proprietary Schools: Poorer Student Outcomes at Schools That Rely More on Federal Student Aid (No. HEHS-97-103). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Madigan, J.P., 2008. Regulation of localization and function of the Rho family small GTPase, Rnd3 (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rueb, E.S., 2016. Before Fire Under Tracks in East Harlem, a Business Took Root. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Stan, 2014; Stone and Lavine, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stone and Lavine, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hughes et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleWatershed Ecology and the Environment
ISSN (print)2589-4714

Other styles