How to format your references using the Watershed Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Watershed Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H., 2001. Tips for sequence centre job-seekers. Nature 409, 964.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duan, H., Sun, C., 2014. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koschowitz, M.-C., Fischer, C., Sander, M., 2014. Evolution. Beyond the rainbow. Science 346, 416–418.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, J., Li, X., Cheng, C., Wang, Y., Qin, M., Zhu, H., Zeng, R., Fu, X., Liu, Z., Zhang, G., 2014. Characterization of epistatic interaction of QTLs LH8 and EH3 controlling heading date in rice. Sci. Rep. 4, 4263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong, K.D., 2011. Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gao, C. (Ed.), 2014. Robotic Cardiac Surgery. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hraška, V., Murín, P., 2015. Interruption of the Aortic Arch, in: Murín, P. (Ed.), Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease II: Single Ventricle and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Aortic Arch Anomalies Septal Defects and Anomalies in Pulmonary Venous Return Anomalies of Thoracic Arteries and Veins A Video Manual. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 119–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Watershed Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Robot Bees Vs Real Bees – Why Tiny Drones Can’t Compete With The Real Thing [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future (No. CED-78-114). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blumenthal, P.M., 2014. Local Land Use Regulatory Regimes and Residential Development Outcomes: An Analysis of Subdivision Review in Four Counties in the DC Region (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kalogerakis, G., 2017. More Change At Charlotte And Wilbur’s. New York Times C13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Duan and Sun, 2014; Gavaghan, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Duan and Sun, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWatershed Ecology and the Environment
ISSN (print)2589-4714

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