How to format your references using the Watershed Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Watershed Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamanaka, S., 2009. Elite and stochastic models for induced pluripotent stem cell generation. Nature 460, 49–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laughlin, S.B., Sejnowski, T.J., 2003. Communication in neuronal networks. Science 301, 1870–1874.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ilonidis, S., Zhao, J., Kosovichev, A., 2011. Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior. Science 333, 993–996.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Volpe, T.A., Kidner, C., Hall, I.M., Teng, G., Grewal, S.I.S., Martienssen, R.A., 2002. Regulation of heterochromatic silencing and histone H3 lysine-9 methylation by RNAi. Science 297, 1833–1837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attokaran, M., 2011. Natural Food Flavors and Colorants. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mino, T., Hanaki, K. (Eds.), 2013. Environmental Leadership Capacity Building in Higher Education: Experience and Lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Walker, A., 2016. Good Intentions vs. Intentional Advocacy, in: Lowery, C., Walker, A., Thomas, C. (Eds.), Un-Democratic Acts: New Departures for Dialogues in Society and Schools. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 43–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Watershed Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. First Video Of Genet Spotted Riding A Black Rhino [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Transportation Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-97 (No. IAP-96-21). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond, D.S., 2017. When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. An Aria for the Little Rock Nine. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yamanaka, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Laughlin and Sejnowski, 2003; Yamanaka, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laughlin and Sejnowski, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Volpe et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleWatershed Ecology and the Environment
ISSN (print)2589-4714

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