How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
VUKUSIC P (2009) Materials science. Evolutionary photonics with a twist. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5939) 398–399.
A journal article with 2 authors
SEO M and HILLMYER MA (2012) Reticulated nanoporous polymers by controlled polymerization-induced microphase separation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6087) 1422–1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
HO VM, LEE J-A and MARTIN KC (2011) The cell biology of synaptic plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6056) 623–628.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
LI J, WANG C, ZHANG Z-M, CHENG Y-Q and ZHOU J (2014) The structural basis of an NADP+-independent dithiol oxidase in FK228 biosynthesis. Scientific reports 4 4145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DESMOND KK (2011) Ideas about Art. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
TILLEY-LUBBS GA and CALVA SB (eds.) (2016) Re-Telling Our Stories: Critical Autoethnographic Narratives. SensePublishers, Rotterdam. XXIV, 258 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
FROWEIN JA (2009) The Interaction Between National Protection of Human Rights and the ECtHR. In: DEUTSCH U and WOLFRUM R (eds.) The European Court of Human Rights Overwhelmed by Applications: Problems and Possible Solutions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
CARPINETI C (2017) This ‘Cosmic Jellyfish’ is Weird and Wonderful. IFLScience. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (2005) National Airspace System: FAA Has Made Progress but Continues to Face Challenges in Acquiring Major Air Traffic Control Systems. GAO-05-331. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
STEINER CP (2015) Three essays in applied microeconomics. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
PILON M (2012) Men’s and Women’s 800-Meter Teams Are Settled. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vukusic, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Vukusic, 2009; Seo and Hillmyer, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seo and Hillmyer, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles