How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DAVIS RJ (2003) Chemistry. All that glitters is not Au0. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5635) 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
BERGSTROM CT and KERR B (2015) Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good. Nature 521 (7553) 431–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
MORENO E, BASLER K and MORATA G (2002) Cells compete for decapentaplegic survival factor to prevent apoptosis in Drosophila wing development. Nature 416 (6882) 755–759.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
KATO T, INAGAKI H, YAMADA K, KOGO H, OHYE T, KOWA H, NAGAOKA K, TANIGUCHI M, EMANUEL BS and KURAHASHI H (2006) Genetic variation affects de novo translocation frequency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5763) 971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MOHANTY S and GHOSH R (2010) Planning a Scientific Career in Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
PLEYER U, ALIÓ JL, BARISANI-ASENBAUER T, LE HOANG P and RAO NA (eds.) (2014) Immune Modulation and Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Ocular Disorders: IOIS Guidelines. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XIII, 244 p. 56 illus., 40 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
EDWARDS LM and MCCLINTOCK JB (2013) Promoting Hope Among Youth: Theory, Research, and Practice. In: PROCTOR C and LINLEY PA (eds.) Research, Applications, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Perspective. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
ANDREW E (2015) Why I’m Sailing To The Arctic In Search Of Missing Mercury. IFLScience. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1986) The Treasury Financial Communications System. 129307. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LITTLE K (2013) Using Ancient and Modern Fishes to Track Environmental Change in the Illinois River. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BRANTLEY B (2016) These Avian Marauders Are Less Than Fierce. New York Times C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2003; Bergstrom and Kerr, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergstrom and Kerr, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kato et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles