How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
BRIGHAM L (2011) Marine protection in the Arctic cannot wait. Nature 478 (7368) 157.
A journal article with 2 authors
WILSON TJ and LILLEY DMJ (2009) Biochemistry. The evolution of ribozyme chemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5920) 1436–1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
HAYDEN BY, PEARSON JM and PLATT ML (2009) Fictive reward signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5929) 948–950.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
CHANG S, JOHNSTON RJ Jr, FRØKJAER-JENSEN C, LOCKERY S and HOBERT O (2004) MicroRNAs act sequentially and asymmetrically to control chemosensory laterality in the nematode. Nature 430 (7001) 785–789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
VINCOLI JW (2014) Basic Guide to System Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
ERVEDOZA S (2013) Numerical Approximation of Exact Controls for Waves. Springer, New York, NY. XVII, 122 p. 17 illus., 3 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
BOAVIDA N (2016) The Use and Influence of Indicators in Decisions About Technological Innovation. In: KRINGS B-J, RODRÍGUEZ H and SCHLEISIEK A (eds.) Scientific Knowledge and the Transgression of Boundaries. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
ANDREW D (2016) Drugs Fatalities Overtake Car Fatalities For The First Time. IFLScience. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1989) Federal Research: Information on Site Selection Process for DOE’s Super Collider. RCED-90-33BR. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
WILSON LA (2014) An exploratory study of the impact of school-wide positive behavior support on bullying. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
CROW K (2002) Alicia Keys Is the Talk Of Her Old Neighborhood. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brigham, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brigham, 2011; Wilson and Lilley, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Lilley, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles