How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
WIDDER EA (2010) Bioluminescence in the ocean: origins of biological, chemical, and ecological diversity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5979) 704–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
CAO X and SÜDHOF TC (2001) A transcriptionally [correction of transcriptively] active complex of APP with Fe65 and histone acetyltransferase Tip60. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5527) 115–120.
A journal article with 3 authors
CHEUNG VG, SHERMAN SL and FEINGOLD E (2010) Genetics. Genetic control of hotspots. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5967) 791–792.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
DALEY DO, RAPP M, GRANSETH E, MELÉN K, DREW D and VON HEIJNE G (2005) Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5726) 1321–1323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
LEMMA A (2008) Introduction to the Practice of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West Sussex, England.
An edited book
BARBÉ E, COSTA O and KISSACK R (eds.) (2016) EU Policy Responses to a Shifting Multilateral System. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London. XXI, 246 p. 2 illus., 1 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
CHARPIAT G, HOFMANN M and SCHÖLKOPF B (2015) Kernel Methods in Medical Imaging. In: PARAGIOS N, DUNCAN J and AYACHE N (eds.) Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
ANDREW E (2015) There Was A Decline Of Male Diversity When Humans Took To Agriculture. IFLScience. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (2000) Space Shuttle: Human Capital and Safety Upgrade Challenges Require Continued Attention. NSIAD/GGD-00-186. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
WOODS BA (2006) The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GURLEY G (2015) That Extra Mile for Love. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Widder, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Widder, 2010; Cao and Südhof, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cao and Südhof, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Daley et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles