How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
EGUES JC (2005) Physics. Fingerprinting spin qubits. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5734) 565–567.
A journal article with 2 authors
AARONSON DS and HORVATH CM (2002) A road map for those who don’t know JAK-STAT. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5573) 1653–1655.
A journal article with 3 authors
SHENVI N, ROY S and TULLY JC (2009) Dynamical steering and electronic excitation in NO scattering from a gold surface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5954) 829–832.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
THOMA R, SCHULZ-GASCH T, D’ARCY B, BENZ J, AEBI J, DEHMLOW H, HENNIG M, STIHLE M and RUF A (2004) Insight into steroid scaffold formation from the structure of human oxidosqualene cyclase. Nature 432 (7013) 118–122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
LI FM, NATHAN A, WU Y and ONG BS (2011) Organic Thin Film Transistor Integration. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
SAVRANSKY M (2016) The Adventure of Relevance: An Ethics of Social Inquiry. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London. XII, 248 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
LAWRENCE A, DJEMAME K, WÄLDRICH O, ZIEGLER W and ZSIGRI C (2011) Using Service Level Agreements for Optimising Cloud Infrastructure Services. In: CEZON M and WOLFSTHAL Y (eds.) Towards a Service-Based Internet. ServiceWave 2010 Workshops: International Workshops, OCS, EMSOA, SMART, and EDBPM 2010, Ghent, Belgium, December 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
CARPINETI A (2016) New Paper Explains How The “Impossible’ EM Drive Might Work. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1996) School Finance: Options for Improving Measures of Effort and Equity in Title I. HEHS-96-142. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LOCICERO LM (2014) The Effects of Vertical Casting Position in Reinforced Concrete. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
BERGER J (2014) Officer Kills Man After Stabbing in Synagogue. New York Times A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Egues, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Egues, 2005; Aaronson and Horvath, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aaronson and Horvath, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Thoma et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles