How to format your references using the Water SA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water SA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
EICKEN H (2013) Arctic sea ice needs better forecasts. Nature 497 (7450) 431–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
DUDNEY NJ and LI J (2015) Materials science. Using all energy in a battery. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6218) 131–132.
A journal article with 3 authors
CHANDRA FA, BUZI G and DOYLE JC (2011) Glycolytic oscillations and limits on robust efficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6039) 187–192.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
GOZLAN RE, ST-HILAIRE S, FEIST SW, MARTIN P and KENT ML (2005) Biodiversity: disease threat to European fish. Nature 435 (7045) 1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ATTOH-OKINE NO (2017) Big Data and Differential Privacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
MAES F (ed.) (2005) Marine Resource Damage Assessment: Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. XVII, 284 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
HASSMÉN P, KEEGAN R and PIGGOTT D (2016) The Status of Theory. In: KEEGAN R and PIGGOTT D (eds.) Rethinking Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: Past, Present and Future. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water SA.

Blog post
DAVIS J (2017) Doctors Warn About New Year ‘Detoxes’. IFLScience. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1999) Aviation Competition: Information on the Department of Transportation’s Proposed Policy. RCED-99-225. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DULICK KC (2010) Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY AL (1999) For Employed Moms, the Pinnacle Of Stress Comes After Work Ends. New York Times 1518.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eicken, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Eicken, 2013; Dudney and Li, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dudney and Li, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gozlan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater SA
AbbreviationWater S. A.
ISSN (print)0378-4738
ISSN (online)1816-7950
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles