How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finney, C. Conservation economics. Comment on “Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot.” Science 2015, 347, 731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, T.; Wheeler, S.E. Organic chemistry. Harnessing weak interactions for enantioselective catalysis. Science 2015, 347, 719–720.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, D.; King, G.; Tapponnier, P. Slip partitioning by elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip at depth. Science 2003, 300, 1121–1123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J. Discovery of the triple asteroidal system 87 Sylvia. Nature 2005, 436, 822–824.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D. Global Real Estate Investment Trusts; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781118256558.
An edited book
Fault Analysis in Cryptography; Joye, M., Tunstall, M., Eds.; Information Security and Cryptography; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642296550.
A chapter in an edited book
Klous, S.; Wielaard, N. Data Stimuli for a Better World. In We are Big Data: The Future of the Information Society; Wielaard, N., Ed.; Atlantis Press: Paris, 2016; pp. 77–93 ISBN 9789462391826.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Some Dinosaurs Lost Their Teeth As They Matured Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office B-2 Bomber: Early Radar Signature Tests; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper, M.H. A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan, T.; Shear, M.D. As Conservatives Grouse, House Passes Disaster Aid and Debt Limit Package. New York Times 2017, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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