How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greengard, P. The Neurobiology of Slow Synaptic Transmission. Science 2001, 294, 1024–1030.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gweon, H.; Schulz, L. 16-Month-Olds Rationally Infer Causes of Failed Actions. Science 2011, 332, 1524.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dillin, A.; Crawford, D.K.; Kenyon, C. Timing Requirements for Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling in C. Elegans. Science 2002, 298, 830–834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hsu, L.-C.; Park, J.M.; Zhang, K.; Luo, J.-L.; Maeda, S.; Kaufman, R.J.; Eckmann, L.; Guiney, D.G.; Karin, M. The Protein Kinase PKR Is Required for Macrophage Apoptosis after Activation of Toll-like Receptor 4. Nature 2004, 428, 341–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119178606.
An edited book
The Rationality and Justification of Legislation: Essays in Legisprudence; Wintgens, L.J., Oliver-Lalana, A.D., Eds.; Legisprudence Library, Studies on the Theory and Practice of Legislation; Springer International Publishing: Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 1; ISBN 9783319000619.
A chapter in an edited book
Gruber, P.M. Applications of an Idea of Voronoĭ, a Report. In Geometry — Intuitive, Discrete, and Convex: A Tribute to László Fejes Tóth; Bárány, I., Böröczky, K.J., Tóth, G.F., Pach, J., Eds.; Bolyai Society Mathematical Studies; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 109–157 ISBN 9783642414978.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
Andrews, R. US Senate Fails To Pass $1.1 Billion Anti-Zika Funding Bill For Third Consecutive Time Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Motor Vehicle Safety: Information on Recent Controversy Between NHTSA and Consumer Group; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, D. A Good Story Changes Everything. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Custom Cleats for the Polished Player. New York Times 2016, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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