How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brin, D. Reality check. Nature 2000, 404, 229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barve, A.; Wagner, A. A latent capacity for evolutionary innovation through exaptation in metabolic systems. Nature 2013, 500, 203–206.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charrier, I.; Mathevon, N.; Jouventin, P. Mother’s voice recognition by seal pups. Nature 2001, 412, 873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kalchenko, V.; Israeli, D.; Kuznetsov, Y.; Harmelin, A. Transcranial optical vascular imaging (TOVI) of cortical hemodynamics in mouse brain. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valière, J.-C. Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118649336.
An edited book
Stober, T. Agile Software Development: Best Practices for Large Software Development Projects; Hansmann, U., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783540708308.
A chapter in an edited book
Curry, G.L.; Feldman, R.M. Multiple-Stage Single-Product Factory Models. In Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis; Feldman, R.M., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 125–157 ISBN 9783642166174.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Is a Vegetarian Diet Really More Environmentally Friendly than Eating Meat? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Security: Department of Education and Other Federal Agencies Need to Better Implement Controls; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter, J.M. Enantioselective Mannich-type Reactions Promoted by Strained Silane Lewis Acids: Selective Generation of Two Contiguous Stereocenters and Entry into a Novel Class of Pyrrolidines. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. A Hole in Their Hearts, 5 Years After Hurricane Hit Staten Island. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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