How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birnbaum, M.J. Signal transduction. Sweet conundrum. Science 2008, 319, 1348–1349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morel, F.M.M.; Groves, J.T. Retrospective: Edward I. Stiefel (1942-2006). Science 2006, 314, 1406.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maier, T.; Jenni, S.; Ban, N. Architecture of mammalian fatty acid synthase at 4.5 A resolution. Science 2006, 311, 1258–1262.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Keiling, A.; Wygant, J.R.; Cattell, C.A.; Mozer, F.S.; Russell, C.T. The global morphology of wave Poynting flux: powering the aurora. Science 2003, 299, 383–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake, P.P.; Fabozzi, F.J. Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118267868.
An edited book
Putting Knowledge to Work and Letting Information Play; Luke, T.W., Hunsinger, J., Eds.; Transdisciplinary Studies; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2012; Vol. 4; ISBN 9789460917288.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarbo, J.J.; Farkas, J.I.; van Breemen, A.J.J. Perception and cognition. In Knowledge in Formation: A Computational Theory of Interpretation; Farkas, J.I., Breemen, A.J.J. van, Eds.; Cognitive Technologies; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 67–83 ISBN 9783642170881.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Tiny New Species of Poisonous Frog Discovered Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Combined Fund Update; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perantoni, E.J. Course design based on the Kolb learning style as it relates to student success in online classes. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Brantley, B. Election Night, With a Play in Real Time. New York Times 2016, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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