How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Archer, D. Ocean Science. Who Threw That Snowball? Science 2003, 302, 791–792.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunn, P.P.; Joiner, S.D. Certificates Should Be Strengthened. Science 2009, 323, 1289–1290; author reply 1298-90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brad Adams, J.; Mann, M.E.; Ammann, C.M. Proxy Evidence for an El Niño-like Response to Volcanic Forcing. Nature 2003, 426, 274–278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pang, W.-W.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, G.-C.; Xu, A.-G.; Zhao, X.-G. Nucleation and Growth Mechanisms of Hcp Domains in Compressed Iron. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port, M. Beyond Booked Solid; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9781118257975.
An edited book
Neuroendocrine Tumours: Diagnosis and Management; Yalcin, S., Öberg, K., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; ISBN 9783662452141.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordon, J.F.; Kramm, R.L. Clinical Trials for IOP-Lowering Devices to Support an FDA Premarket Submission. In Surgical Innovations in Glaucoma; Samples, J.R., Ahmed, I.I.K., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 61–66 ISBN 9781461483472.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Billionth Gamma-Ray Observed By NASA Fermi Satellite Instrument Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Long-Range Planning Can Improve the Efficiency of Agricultural Research and Development; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karas, L.L. Information Systems and Technology Leaders in Merger and Acquisition Integrations. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M.; Walsh, M.W. One Judge to Decide the Future of Detroit. New York Times 2014, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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