How to format your references using the Water citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batty, M. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science 2008, 319, 769–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nelson, W.J.; Nusse, R. Convergence of Wnt, beta-catenin, and cadherin pathways. Science 2004, 303, 1483–1487.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, H.; Aihara, K.; Chen, L. Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7464.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biskup, C.; Kusch, J.; Schulz, E.; Nache, V.; Schwede, F.; Lehmann, F.; Hagen, V.; Benndorf, K. Relating ligand binding to activation gating in CNGA2 channels. Nature 2007, 446, 440–443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thomas, C.G. Greece; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, 2014; ISBN 9781118635650.
An edited book
Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Cation Channels: Volume II; Nilius, B., Flockerzi, V., Eds.; Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 223; ISBN 9783319051604.
A chapter in an edited book
Welfens, P.J.J. Information and Communications Technology, Regulations and Growth: Theory and Key Policy Issues. In Integration in Asia and Europe: Historical Dynamics, Political Issues, and Economic Perspectives; Welfens, P.J.J., Knipping, F., Chirathivat, S., Ryan, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 31–65 ISBN 9783540287292.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water.

Blog post
Hale, T. The Story Of The Only Confirmed Person To Be Hit By A Meteorite (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airport Finance: Observations on Planned Airport Development Costs and Funding Levels and the Administration’s Proposed Changes in the Airport Improvement Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Visweswaran, K. Face Recognition Technique for Blurred/Unclear Images. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. About That Night. New York Times 2014, MM21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWater
AbbreviationWater (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4441
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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