How to format your references using the Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Choi, J. R. (2014). A novel method for analyzing complicated quantum behaviors of light waves in oscillating turbulent plasma. Scientific Reports, 4, 6880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abraham, R. G., & van Den Bergh, S. (2001). The morphological evolution of galaxies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5533), 1273–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno, T., Tada, K., & Watanabe, Y. (2009). Kinetochore geometry defined by cohesion within the centromere. Nature, 458(7240), 852–858.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kodama, K., Takigawa, M., Horvatić, M., Berthier, C., Kageyama, H., Ueda, Y., Miyahara, S., Becca, F., & Mila, F. (2002). Magnetic superstructure in the two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet SrCu2(BO3)2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5592), 395–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wildi, O. (2010). Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bryan, N. S., & Loscalzo, J. (Eds.). (2011). Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Batista, M. J., & Martins, L. P. (2008). Preliminary Results of a Risk Assessment Study for Uranium Contamination in Central Portugal. In H. J. Pasman & I. A. Kirillov (Eds.), Resilience of Cities to Terrorist and other Threats: Learning from 9/11 and further Research Issues (pp. 69–84). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, August 19). 7,000-Year-Old Skeleton Shows Evidence Of Leukemia. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Managing Competing Pressures Is Critical to Achieving Program Goals (GAO-03-1012T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo, C. A. (2014). The potential harms of breast cancer screening: estimating the unnecessary surgical diagnosis of benign breast lesions and its impact on quality and cost among insured women younger than 65 years old [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., & Cooper, M. (2013, April 15). Blasts at Boston Marathon Kill 3 and Injure 100. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Choi, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Abraham & van Den Bergh, 2001; Choi, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abraham & van Den Bergh, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sakuno et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kodama et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleVulnerable Children and Youth Studies
AbbreviationVulnerable Child. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1745-0128
ISSN (online)1745-0136
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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