How to format your references using the Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, J. (2007). Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Water, water, not everywhere? Introduction to special issue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5845), 1705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattila, H. R., & Seeley, T. D. (2007). Genetic diversity in honey bee colonies enhances productivity and fitness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 362–364.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blair, A. C., Fisher, E. R., & Rickey, D. (2012). IBI* series winner. Discovering nanoscience. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6098), 1056–1057.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schaff, F., Malecki, A., Potdevin, G., Eggl, E., Noël, P. B., Baum, T., Garcia, E. G., Bauer, J. S., & Pfeiffer, F. (2014). Correlation of X-ray vector radiography to bone micro-architecture. Scientific Reports, 4, 3695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, A. (2014). A Concise Guide to Observational Studies in Healthcare. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Abdessameud, A. (2013). Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Attitude Synchronisation and Formation Control (A. Tayebi, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schrenk, P., Hall-Findlay, E. J., Fitzal, F., Grisotti, A., Casella, D., Calabrese, C., Rageth, C., Schöndorf, N. K., Rainsbury, R. M., & Huemer, G. M. (2010). OPS and Breast Conserving Surgery (BSC). In F. Fitzal & P. Schrenk (Eds.), Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Guide to Clinical Practice (pp. 45–132). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 28). How The Brightest Supernovae Become Superluminous. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Telecommunications: GSA’s Estimates of FTS2001 Revenues Are Reasonable (AIMD-00-123). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richey, B. (2014). Exploration of a Tandem Diels-Alder Ugi-Smiles Reaction [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, July 14). France Loses to the U.S., With Typical Elegance. New York Times, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2007; Mattila & Seeley, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mattila & Seeley, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Blair et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schaff et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVulnerable Children and Youth Studies
AbbreviationVulnerable Child. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1745-0128
ISSN (online)1745-0136
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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