How to format your references using the Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, M. S. (2011). The dark clouds over US astronomy. Nature, 476(7359), 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pellerin, L., & Magistretti, P. J. (2004). Neuroscience. Let there be (NADH) light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5680), 50–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, A. J., Mori-Sánchez, P., & Yang, W. (2008). Insights into current limitations of density functional theory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 792–794.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, X., Liu, X., Jia, X., Tan, F., Yang, R., Chen, S., Liu, L., Wang, Y., & Chen, Y. (2013). Network characteristic analysis of ADR-related proteins and identification of ADR-ADR associations. Scientific Reports, 3, 1744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop, J., Girma, D., & Irvine, J. (2013). Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schomburg, D., Schomburg, I., & Chang, A. (Eds.). (2010). Class 4–6 Lyases, Isomerases, Ligases: EC 4–6 (Second Edition, Vol. S7). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Misnikov, Y. (2016). Democratisating the Eastern Partnership in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities of Political Association Beyond the Language of Official Texts. In T. Kerikmäe & A. Chochia (Eds.), Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy (pp. 59–79). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 11). Women May Find Cocaine More Addictive When Their Estrogen Levels Are High. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System (T-RCED/AIMD-00-142). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedman, D. E. (2017). Characterization of Organic Matter in Suspended Sediments Via Pyrolysis and Oxidation [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. (2017, September 18). Refusing to Let the Seizures Defeat Him. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Pellerin & Magistretti, 2004; Turner, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pellerin & Magistretti, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Cohen et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVulnerable Children and Youth Studies
AbbreviationVulnerable Child. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1745-0128
ISSN (online)1745-0136
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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