How to format your references using the Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibbs, R. (2005). Deeper into the genome. Nature, 437(7063), 1233–1234.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, P., & Hanahan, D. (2009). Cancer. Breaching the cancer fortress. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1400–1401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fashami, M. S., Atulasimha, J., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2013). Energy dissipation and error probability in fault-tolerant binary switching. Scientific Reports, 3, 3204.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kodambaka, S., Khare, S. V., Swiech, W., Ohmori, K., Petrov, I., & Greene, J. E. (2004). Dislocation-driven surface dynamics on solids. Nature, 429(6987), 49–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2014). Network Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Beheshti, S.-M.-R. (2016). Process Analytics: Concepts and Techniques for Querying and Analyzing Process Data. (B. Benatallah, S. Sakr, D. Grigori, H. R. Motahari-Nezhad, M. C. Barukh, A. Gater, & S. H. Ryu, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tian, H., Luo, X.-G., Han, Z., Hao, R., Wang, N., Jiang, Y., & Zhang, T.-C. (2012). Identification and Characterization of Lactobacillus Planetarium TH1. In E. Zhu & S. Sambath (Eds.), Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (pp. 31–37). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 31). Your Genes May Decide Whether Or Not Ebola Would Kill You. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Medicare: New Claims Processing System Benefits and Acquisition Risks (No. HEHS/AIMD-94-79). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escalante-Guerra, M. (2009). Policy analysis proposal regarding the Adoptions and Safe Family Act of 1997 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling, M. K. (2017, February 6). Fine Dining Is Toast. New York Times, p. M2106.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibbs, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs, 2005; Olson & Hanahan, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson & Hanahan, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Fashami, Atulasimha, & Bandyopadhyay, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kodambaka et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVulnerable Children and Youth Studies
AbbreviationVulnerable Child. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1745-0128
ISSN (online)1745-0136
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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