How to format your references using the Vocation sage-femme citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocation sage-femme. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varis O. Resources: Curb vast water use in central Asia. Nature 2014;514:27–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kosten S, Lacerot G. Life in science. It takes a village. Science 2009;324:1265.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tasker SZ, Standley EA, Jamison TF. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis. Nature 2014;509:299–309.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kumar PR, Yu Y, Sternglanz R, Johnston SA, Joshua-Tor L. NADP regulates the yeast GAL induction system. Science 2008;319:1090–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mansour M, Wilhite R, Rowe J. Guide to Ruminant Anatomy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Birkeland C, editor. Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene. 1st ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma H, Oxley L. Methods and Estimation. In: Oxley L, editor. China’s Energy Economy: Situation, Reforms, Behavior, and Energy Intensity, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocation sage-femme.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Mystery Of Saturn’s Weird Hexagon May Have Been Solved. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Secure Flight: TSA Could Take Additional Steps to Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham C. How Are Nonresident African American Fathers Involved in Their Children’s Academic Success? Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Looking the Part of a Mets Starter, a Rookie Delivers. New York Times 2016:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVocation sage-femme
ISSN (print)1634-0760

Other styles