How to format your references using the Vocation sage-femme citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vocation sage-femme. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Craighead H. Future lab-on-a-chip technologies for interrogating individual molecules. Nature 2006;442:387–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Göndör A, Ohlsson R. Chromosome crosstalk in three dimensions. Nature 2009;461:212–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelbert A, Schultz A, Egbert G. Global electromagnetic induction constraints on transition-zone water content variations. Nature 2009;460:1003–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Johansson LI, Armiento R, Avila J, Xia C, Lorcy S, Abrikosov IA, et al. Multiple π-bands and Bernal stacking of multilayer graphene on C-face SiC, revealed by nano-Angle Resolved Photoemission. Sci Rep 2014;4:4157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klöpffer W. Verhalten und Abbau von Umweltchemikalien. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Pawlik TM, Maithel SK, Merchant NB, editors. Gastrointestinal Surgery: Management of Complex Perioperative Complications. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kahraman C, Kaya İ. Fuzzy Equivalent Annual-Worth Analysis and Applications. In: Kahraman C, editor. Fuzzy Engineering Economics with Applications, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 71–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vocation sage-femme.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Is The Human Mind Linked To Quantum Mechanics? IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Private, Profitmaking Firms’ Reports on Research and Development Contracts with the Environmental Protection Agency Can Be Evaluated Better. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mersch C. Campus-based drunk-driving intervention program: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Super Powers: Turning a Dime Into a Million Bucks. New York Times 2010:WK2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVocation sage-femme
ISSN (print)1634-0760

Other styles